After understanding various types of chemical hazards in foregoing parts, we should process to know instruments, equipment and other control measure.
To maintain, control, measure, alarm and record process parameters, various industrial instruments and safety devices are used. Their proper selection, application and maintenance are most important. Some instruments are mentioned below:
Anemometer: Instrument for measuring the speed of wind or any other moving gas.
Atmometer: Evaporimeter. An instrument for measuring the rate of evaporation of water.
Barometer: For measuring atmospheric pressure.
Barograph: Used in meteorology for recording on paper the variations in atmospheric pressure over a period of time.
Bolometer: An extremely sensitive instrument for measuring heat radiation.
Bomb calorimeter: A strong metal vessel used for measuring heats of reaction especially heats of combustion for determining the calorific value of a fuel.
Bourdon Gauge: A pressure gauge for steam boilers etc.
Calorimeter: For determining quantities of heat evolved absorbed or transferred.
Pyrometer: A thermometer especially designed for measuring low temperature.
Dilatometer: An apparatus used for measuring volume changes of substances.
Hydrometer: For measuring the density or relative density of liquid.
Hygrometer: For measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere.
Manometer: For measuring gaseous pressure.
Pycnometer: An apparatus for determining the density and co-efficient of expansion of a liquid.
Pyrometer: For measuring high temperatures.
Rotameter: A device to measure the rate of flow of fluids.
Salinometer: A type of hydrometer used for determining the concentration of salt solutions by measuring their density.
Seismograph: For recording earthquakes and phenomena associated with them.
Spectrophotometer: A photometer for comparing two light radiation wavelength by wavelength.
Spherometer: For accurate measurement of small thickness, or curvature of spherical surfaces.
Tensiometer: An apparatus for measuring the surface tension of a liquid, moisture content of soil or tension in wire, fiber or beam.
Thermo barograph: For measuring and recording atmospheric temperature and pressure, consisting of a thermograph and barograph.
Thermocouple: For measurement of temperature.
Thermograph: A self registering thermometer to record temperature variations during a period of time on a graph.
Thermometer: For measurement of temperature viz mercury thermometer, gas thermometer, pyrometer, resistance thermometer, thermocouple, backman thermometer, thermometer clinical, thermometer maximum and minimum.
Thermopile: For detecting and measuring heat radiation.
Thermostat: For maintaining a constant temperature by the use of a device that cuts of the supply of heat when the required temperature is exceeded and automatically restores the supply when the temperature falls below that required.
Viscometer: For the measurement of viscosity.
Some special instruments available are as follows
Gas/Fume/Vapour detector & alarm leakage warning instrument. This is an electrical instrument Having a sensor and audible alarm to give warning, when preset, air gas mixture exceeds the set TLV or LEL limit. It detects flue gases, LPG, smoke, petrol vapours, Paraffin fumes, hydrocarbons, ammonia, Freon, hexane, acetone, benzene,chloroform fumes, CO2, H2S, methane, solvent vapours and many poisonous /explosive gases, various type of glass detector hand models are also available.
Metal Detector: It detects the metallic objects of ferrous and non-ferrous materials hidden in the pocket/bag etc. and can locate the concealed conducts or cables etc. from a close distance. It has like torch or a close piezo alarm.
Electronic Flasher: A built in solid state electronic flasher, which can flash mains bulb or series lamps on mains at adjustable flashing rate. It can be used as danger indicator or attracting attention etc.
Electronic Air Cleaner: For indoor use up to an area of 25 sq. Meters for pollution free clean atmosphere and wherever bad odour is a problem. It also deactivates dust particles suspended in air, reduces effects of secondary smoking and controls, Virus and retards growth of bacteria.
Alcohol Detecting Instruments: With electronic alarm to before drivers sit behind the wheels or workers on the machines, thus prevent them from alcohol consumption, when they are on duty.
Similar Other Instruments: Explosimeter, Clap switch, LPG level alarm, Gas level indicator, smoke detector, insect killer, proximity switches, remote switch, electronic siren, loud hailer cum siren, multipoint gas detection system, NH, Cl2 detector, Flammable gas detector, digital in/out indicator, burglar alarm, heat sensor, Manual fire alarm switch, control cum power unit, static charge detector, Hand dryer, Timer, Hotter, ionization smoke detector, fire extinguishing system, dragger tubes and air pump for contaminated air sampling, Gas chromatography, solid state potentiometric recorders, Combustion gas detectors, explosive gas detector with personal monitor, infra-red gas analyser for the measurement of co, co2, ch3 or other constituents. Dragger polymeter to determine mean value of gas concentration in air. Over a period of several hours by means of special gas detector tubes e.g. for CO, NH3, benzene, vinyl chloride etc. Oxygen detection system for o2 measurement with audible alarm and fails up monitoring, tunnel control leaser, portable anemometer giving direct reading of wind velocity, velometer, noise dosimeter, noise meters, calibrators and filters, temperature date loggers, dust samplers for taking dust samples for gravimetric, chemical and minerlogical analysis, hilgers, oil and water removers, IST (International sensor technologies of USA) sensor to measure CO, NO, NH3, SO2, H2, Hydrocarbons, vinyl chloride, acylonitrile etc. In ppm or percentage level, high pressure liquid chromatography for degassing of solvent not necessary, reflective index detector, fluorescence detector, auto sampler, micro processor based system controller, flame arrester to ensure safety for explosions, due to flammable gas or dust etc.
Flame proof equipment: Switch gears, lightening fitting cable/conductor, cable glands and accessories, switch socket, limit switch, oil limit switch, rototary camp switches, fuse units with HRC, fuse links bell, glass lightening fittings, flood light control gear box, bulk head fittings, hand lamps, vessel lamps, safety torch, indicating lamp, ammeter, circuit breaker, distribution board, control station, remote control panels, junction box, flame proof and explosion proof electric motors.