1. To appraise mean to set a value on. Safety or loss prevention programme. appraisal, therefore, includes all ways and means to measure and indicate the value of any plant, machinery, process, method, exposure etc. in terms of their individual and total safety effectiveness, performance, maintenance and control techniques. This is the first step of any safety organization in its march toward accident or loss prevention programme.
2. Safety appraisal are of many types.
(A) Qualitative appraisal is carried out to find the-area where safety improvement is necessary. It includes techniques of inspection, audit, review, analysis, study etc. for the exclusive purpose of safety. Previous approval of plant and building, machinery layout, safety measures provided and to be provided are required under the Factories Act and Rules for this objective.
(B) Quantitative appraisal is the method of computing accident frequency, severity, incidence and their index. Frequency rate is useful in comparing safety performance of different units in a given time, while severity rate is useful in comparing safety performance of the same unit in different periods.
(C) Preventive appraisal includes preventive maintenance before any. accident occurs. Plant safety sampling, safety survey, fault tree analysis, risk. analysis. HAZOP and HAZAN studies, safety inventory. system safety, safety standards, safety permit system, safety tag and lockout, safety steward etc. are used for this purpose. Inspections by the plant personnel, Safety Officer. safety expert and factory inspectors must be utilized for this objective.
(D) Corrective appraisal includes corrective maintenance after any accident takes place or any defect (crack, corrosion, wear & tear etc.) detected. If such damage/injury valuation and repairing is not carried out, it will, continue the interruption of activity and ill effect on health and safety. Accident investigation, analysis, identifying the key facts, accident potential and causes, application of the remedy (corrective action) are carrier} out for this objective.
3. Statutory appraisal tests and records are. Prescribed as a minimum measure necessary Testing of boilers pressure vessels, lifting machinery, fire safety, monitoring and analysis of toxic flammable, explosive or harmful environment and medical health check-ups of workers are prescribed under the Factories Act and Rules. Water/Air Pollution Control Acts, Environment (Protection) Act & Rules and similar statutes are also for this objective.
4. Organized industrial safety is, now, recognized as an integral part of routine industrial Operations. Inspections of plant, machinery, tools, equipment, premises, work practices, processes, procedures and general environment must be carried out for the health and safety of plant-people and surrounding. On-site and Offsite Emergency Plans are also useful.
5. To assess the overall standard of safety performance the concept of Safety Audit developed by Chemical Industries Association is also useful in non-chemical industry.
6. The concepts of Total Loss Control and Total Loss Prevention are also useful to measure and maintain the levels of safety.
7. Indirect cost of accident is more than the direct cost of compensation and medical expenses. Injured party can also sue the employer; similarly compensation is also payable for breach of product safety A manufacturer may be economically out due to such accident losses. Therefore he must seriously think to save such high costs and losses by ‘ adopting good safety appraisal systems.
Safety Appraisal System:-
Safety appraisal system is a system, methods, practice or procedure to measure the safety performance or standards for the purpose of evaluating its effectiveness and reliability, to find out drawbacks or deficiency if any and to Suggest the safety measures to raise its safety value.
For this broad aspect safety appraisal system includes many techniques of measurement and control. It is desirable to adopt it as a regular practice of plant safety inspection or safety auditing before any accident occurs. Measurement of injury frequency rate, severity rate, incidence rate, safety activity rate and total cost of accident is an quantitative appraisal system The qualitative system includes statutory safety approval, inspection, checklists and follow up, desire? and construction safety, process & product safety, safety checks and standards, machine guarding, good housekeeping and maintenance,, chemical safety, engineering controls, use of safety devices and equipment, safety survey, safety sampling, hazard/risk detection, measurement, assessment and control techniques, safety study, safety tour ,safety training, safety observation plan, damage or loss control, job safety analysis, critical incidence. technique, fault tree analysis, HAZOP and HAZAN, safe inventory, system safety, circuit approach to safety, safety permit system, total loss control, safety stewardship scheme, plant safety inspection, checklist and audit, safely recommendations and compliance, accident investigation, fact finding, analysis, selection and application of remedy, report writing ‘ and maintaining good safety records to check safety performance at any time. Onsite and Off-site emergency plans are useful to plan and handle emergencies and control major hazards. All factories should prepare their-on-site emergency plans from their own resources This will be useful to minimize heavy accidental losses. All these systems are explained below in brief
Damage means severity of injury or physical, functional or monetary loss that could result if control of a hazard is lost.
Damage Control is directly concerned with the protection of machinery, materials and manufactured goods assets from accidental loss within the factory. Indirectly it is concerned with money asset and manpower asset.
The Problem of Damage Accident was highlighted by H. W Heinrich some 75 years ago He analyzed 75000 accidents and concluded that an accident can result in human injury and damage to property or both and the causes of injury and damage are similar lack of skill, knowledge, unsafe system etc. Frank Bird (USA)’s study of 90,000 accidents in 1959 revealed that damage accidents were 5 times more frequent than injury accidents. He concluded that for 145 disabling injuries there were 15000 other injuries and 75000 property damage accidents. He carried out second study in 1966 of 17,53,498 accidents of 297 industries employing 17,50,000 workers. He concluded that 30.2 property damage accidents were reported for each disabling injury. He pointed out the ratio 1-100500 of disabling injury (l).to minor injuries (100), and incidents with no visible injury or damage (500). Similar other researches also conclude that damage accidents outnumber personal injuries and then account for greater loss then injury accidents in spite of this fact, is it not strange that safety programmes are more oriented to injury prevention than damage prevention?
Impediment to damage control was due to old definition of accident considering personal injury only, and referring property damage accident as no injury accident’. The modem definition of accident is an unintended event that results in physical harm to a person or damage to property’ misreporting or under reporting of damage accidents, no statutory requirement (except dangerous occurrence) and failure to set up a realistic programme to damage control are other impediments.
Therefore damage control problem should be property recognized to prevent all accidents causing (a) damage to plant, machinery, equipment, tools, building and other property (b) loss of quantity or quality of materials during storage, handing and transport and (c) delay to ‘ process, function or ‘ activity due to need of repair or replacement Benefits of damage control scheme are
1. Reduction in potential accidents and chance of injury accidents.
2. Reduction in severe injuries, production delay, and costs of maintenance, replacement and damaged materials.
3. Detection of unsafe conditions and unsafe actions which may contribute to injuries.
4. Increase of quality control, profit, importance and status of safety organization, awareness of supervisors and management to control property damage.
Steps to introduce good damage control program are as follows:
1 Spot checking: Includes visiting repair canters, making observation and taking notes.
2 Damage Reporting and Investigation: All unplanned or unintended happenings likely to cause personal injury must be reported by workers and supervisors to management. Such cases should be property investigated and corrected.
3 Damage Costing and Auditing: Cost of repairs arising out of accidental damage must be marked by ‘D’ accounted for and their records must be maintained. A full time damage control inspector can audit all work orders, conduct regular inspections spat checking of repair centers and analyzing damage cost factors Computation of direct and indirect cost of damage accident should be carried out another method is ledger cost concept which concerned with damage to machines, equipment, materials and loss 01 production time. Having worked out the damage cost for full year, the cost-severity rate can be evolved by the formula –
This property damage severity rate can be compared ,from year to year 4 Remedial Engineering : Collecting data of repetitive repairs to equipment and property from repair shop, redesign of equipment, revision of layout or work method and engineering controls should be implemented to prevent those damage accidents.
Total Loss Control (TLC):-
The Concept clarified: The concept of Accident Prevention when applied to prevent human injuries only it is called Injury Prevention or Control When it is applied to control property (machinery, materials and manufactured goods) damage (losses) only, it is called Damage Control.When it is applied to control human injuries and property damage (losses) both, and also extended to include injuries and property damage to society or surrounding, it is called Total Loss Control (TLC), Total Accident Control (TAC) or ‘iota! Injury Control (TlC)When this concept of total loss control is applied or achieved by means of engineering controls, it is known as Total Loss Prevention (TLP). .The terms damage control, loss control; loss prevention and risk management are defined in Chapter-2 with other terms to realize the total concept of safety.
The concept of Total loss Control is also defined as. follows It is an evolution from injury prevention to the control of all business losses by the application of sound management principles.
It is a system of reporting and controlling all incidents, however small, whether the associated loss is small or large All incidents are examined, potential losses estimated and recombination are made and acted upon to avoid repetitions.
it is a programme to eliminate unnecessary costs by means of identification of do i grading situations, measurement of the loss potential , selection of methods to control the situation and finally implementation 01′ the methods within the industrial 1 enterprise. A down grading incident could he defined d as any deviation in accepted performance levels resulting in injury, occupational sickness or disease. Property damage, fire or explosion, breaches of security pollution or product liability and business interruption.
Development of the Concept: Historically, the concept evolved from H; W. Heinrich ratio in 1931 that for one serious injury the e may be 29 minor injuries and 300 no injury accident is (Ratio 1-29-300). Frank B Bird, after intensive research in 1966, gave this ratio as 1-100-500, John A. Fletcher, after a world-wide survey in 1969, gave this ratio 19-175.
Though this ratio differs because of different study conditions, it proves two important conclusions: (l) No injury accidents are far greater than the serious or major injury and
(2) It is necessary to control or prevent large number of .no injury and minor injury accidents for controlling or preventing a major or disabling accident Thus increasing hazard s to persons and property because of the industrial revolution in western countries has developed us TLC concept and now, many books are available It this subject.
Relevance of Total Loss Control to India: This concept of TLC has great relevance to India as every loss reduced or eliminated would help to conserve our limited resources and control prices.
Some Annual Indices of avoidable losses in India are estimated below:
1. Accidental deaths in industries and elsewhere 1,40,000.
2. Non-fatal injuries in factories, 5,00,000.
3. Workmen Compensation being paid Rs. 500 lakhs.
4. ESIC benefits being paid Rs. 20000 lakhs.
5. Loss due to deficiencies in packing, transportation and storage of commodities like food, cement fertilizers etc. Rs 5000 crores.
‘ 6. Losses due to fire Rs. 2000 Crores.
These figures reveal great opportunity to prevent as ma4y losses as possible by our collective efforts.
The Fundamentals of Loss Control: Some fundamental principles are given below
1. Accidents, unsafe conditions and unsafe actions re symptoms of something wrong is the management system.
2. Certain sets of circumstances can be predicted to produce sever injuries identified and controlled.
3. Safety should be managed like any other company function. Management must direct the safety efforts by setting achievable goals by planning, organizing, and controlling to achieve them.
4. The key to effective line safety performance is management procedures that fix responsibility and accountability.
5. The function of safety is to locate and define the operational errors that allow to occur. The functions of safety can be carried out in two ways:
1. Asking why searching for root causes and
2. By asking whether or not certain known effective controls are being utilized
Management for Loss Control : Risk Department, Risk Manager and Departmental Heads should, first, formulate Total Loss Control Policy for the company. Loss Prevention Committee should be formed to execute the policy. Responsibility should be fixed. By special attention to employees selection, placement, training and participation and adopting safety in design, safety audits and checklists, the goals should be achieved.
Four Steps procedure is necessary
1. Identification of hazards.
2. Evaluation of hazards and their detailed analysis
3. Planning and implementing measures to reduce hazards and
4. Frequent review.
Application of this procedure brings following benefits:
(a) Memorizing damage to machines materials (raw and finished) and methods.
(b) Saving on insurance or better insurance cover at lower cost.
Control measures monitored by the Loss Control Department are
1. Rules and Regulations.
2. Traffic Laws.
3. Standard Procedure Inductions.
4, Measurement of safety performance by various ratings (indices).
5. Occupational safety id health standards/ rules.
6. Investigation of Losses and.
7. Summary Analysis.
Thus by adopting Total Loss Control we can render the workplace fully safe and efficient,
Job Safety Analysis (JSA):
Purpose & Definition Job safety Analysis is a procedure of analyzing job for the purpose of finding the hazards in each step ad developing safety precautions to be adopted. Though this technique an be applied, at any stage, it is most useful at the stage of planning, design and starting the process.
It can be used to review job method and uncover hazards (a) that may have been overlooks at the design or planning stage of plant layout, building, machinery, equipment. Tools, workstations, processes etc. (b) that were noticed subsequently (c) that were resulted from changes in work procedure or personnel It is the first step in hazard 1 accident analysis and safety training
It determines details f each job in terms of duties, skills abilities, qualification lion safety aspect, tools required methods sequence of Operation and working condition It 1% useful for routine or repetitive job as well ‘ as maintenance and shot orders.
1. It suggests what personal characteristics such as age, sex, qualification, skill, experience .abilities, physical standards etc are necessary for selecting a right man for a right job.
2. The job breakdown sheets are useful to train new workers in proper sequence of doing the job safely and efficiently.
3 The hazards are notice before they cause any accident.
4. It suggests preventive measures in advance to avoid accidents.
5. It helps for planned and effective inspection and accident investigation.
6. It suggests improved job motions positions, actions and work standards.
7. Proper organization of methods consisted accepted safe and efficient practices.
8. Preplanning, preparedness and performance can be started by exe properly the requirements of the Operation are:
A. Select the job.
B. Breakdown the job into successive steps.
C. Identify hazards and potential accidents each step.
D. Develop safety measures to eliminate hazards and consequential accidents steps are briefly explained below:
Jobs with potential for more frequent accidents sever injuries and new jobs wherein hazards uncrown should be selected first.
The job should be broken down in proper sequence and steps. Operation, description, in (excising or potential) and precautions should mentioned.
To identify hazards observe ‘the operation’ as many times as necessary, ask the operator concerned or others having good knowledge of that job and the hazards in each step. Consider all possibilities accident, failure mode and effect etc.