Operating cranes Safety

Mobile crane
Mobile creane safety picture

Mobile crane safety

Common Failures in Cranes:-

Types of Error in operating cranes

  • 1) Human Error.
  • 2) Machine Error.
  • 90% of failure occur due to human error.
  • The failures that occur due to human error for the following unsafe practices.


Watch Your Clearance during operating cranes


  • Clear work area.
  • Proper clearance from m/c, boom or load.
  • Vision should not be obscured.
  • Blow horn to signal or warn.
  • Understanding of signals.

Daily Inspection of Machine during operating cranes:-

  • Don’t operate a poorly maintained m/c.
  • Inspect clutches, brakes, attachments & wire rope daily.
  • Lattice boom check.


Don’t let the load hit the boom during operating cranes:-

  • Don’t let the boom rest on or hit against an object.
  • If a lattice or diagonal bracing member is broken or cracked, REPLACE IT.
  • If bent straightens it.


Working near power lines:-

  • Be alert – you are working around a condition which can cause death.
  • keep all m/c parts, hook block & load, fall lines – at least 15feet from Line.
  • Assume that every line is hot.
  • Appoint a person with a loud signal to warn the operator.
  • Don’t allow anyone to lean against or touch the m/c.
  • Don’t allow sling man or load handlers to hold load or rigging gears unless necessary.
  • If m/c operating in arc zone, keep moving away from the line until arc breaks at least 15 feet away.
  • If disengagement from the line is not possible & m/c is not on fire, stay back in the seat until power line shut off.
  • If leaving from the m/c is must, leap from the m/c as far as you can.

Use of magnet for lifting:-

  • Lifting magnet generators produce voltages in excess of 200 volts & present an electrical shock hazard- deploy trained personnel.
  • Don’t touch magnet or load while in operation.
  • Don’t let workmen get in between magnet & metal object.
  • If necessary to position a load, use a dry, wooden stick.

Operating cranes

Crane boom safety:-

  • Loads must be well secured before lifting.
  • Chains & slings must be of adequate size.
  • The load must not catch on an obstruction when lifting or swinging.
  • Avoid sudden starts & stops, Operate smoothly.

  • Never wrap the hoist around the load during operating cranes. Never use discarded, worn, or damaged rope for slings
  • The m/c must be level before making a lift. The hook block and fall lines can be used as plumb bob for leveling.
  • Remember -a 3-degree side tilt can reduce the cap. By 50% or more.

Know your load:-

  • Use a scale weight, carefully calculated weight or hook scale or a load indicating system
  • Weight includes the weight of slings, gear, hook block & any overhaul weights.
  • In case of lifting with fly jib installed, the weight of the jib & rigging mast must also be considered part of the load.
  • The total weight should never exceed the rated capacity of the m/c.
  • Avoid operating an m/c in high winds & wind blowing against the load, as it produces side load on boom & reduces capacity.
  • Keep the load lines as short as possible.

Effect of centrifugal force:-

  • Centrifugal force tends to increase load radius. This increase in load radius could overload the machine & cause damage. Use of tagline is recommended to control this force.

Crane boom safety during operating cranes:-

  • Operating on the outrigger, beams must be fully extended as well as, so that tyre is clear of grounds.
  • Do not pick loads on the main hoist and jib at the same time.
  • Do not work with jib angles greater than 30deg w.r.t. boom.
  • Do not increase the counterweight above than specified.
  • Avoid using multiple cranes on a lift.
  • Use caution when operating with minimum radius. This may damage boom backstop.
  • After slack rope operation, make sure rope is properly seated on sheaves & drums.
  • Never lower the boom on load beyond the point where two full wraps of load are left on the drum.

Submerged load:-

  • Caution while lifting the Submerged load
  • It may be saturated & weigh much time more than is expected.
  • Should be raised slowly
Never stand in front of the Tyre when inflating

Battery & Radiator:-

  • Never use an open flame to check a battery
  • Be careful when removing radiator caps.

Types of failures in EOT Cranes:-

  • Uncontrolled long/cross travel due to the negligence of the operator.
  • Provide limit switch strikers to avoid derailment.
  • Provide mechanical impact buffers to prevent unexpected travel.
  • Lightweight small objects hindrance on rails:
  • Provide skurt boards in the front and rear side of bogies to push away the hindrance.
  • Over hoist protection:
  • Provide a pendent limit switch to prevent over hoist.
  • Short circuit :
  • Provide waterproof operator cabin & guard all electrical components.


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