THE FACTORIES ACT 1948

(23rd September, 1948)
An Act to consolidate and amend the law regulating labour in factories.
WHEREAS it is expedient to consolidate and amend the law regulating
labour in factories;
It is hereby enacted as follows:-
CHAPTER 1
PRELIMINARY
1. Short title, extent and commencement.- (1) This Act may be called the
Factories Act, 1948.
1[(2) It extends to the whole of India.
(3) It shall come into force on the 1st day of April, 1949.
2. Interpretation.-In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the
subject or context,-
(a) “adult” means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of
age;
(b) “adolescent” means a person who has completed his fifteenth
year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year;
3[(bb) “calendar year” means the period of twelve months beginning
with the first day of January in any year;]
(c) “child” means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year
of age;
4[(ca) “competent person”, in relation to any provision of this Act,
means a person or an institution recognised as such by the Chief
Inspector for the purposes of carrying out tests, examinations
and inspections required to be done in a factory under the
provisions of this Act having regard to-
(i) the qualifications and experience of the person and
facilities available at his disposal; or
(ii) the qualifications and experience of the persons
employed in such institution and facilities available
therein, with regard to the conduct of such tests,
examinations and inspections, and more than one
person or institution can be recognised as a competent
person in relation to a factory;
(cb) “hazardous process” means any process or activity in relation to
an industry specified in the First Schedule where, unless special
care is taken, raw materials used therein or the intermediate or
finished products, bye-products, wastes or effluents thereof
would-

1 Subs. by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950 for former sub-sec. and subsequently
amended by Act 51 of 1970.
2 The words except the State of “Jammu and Kashmir” omitted by amended by Act 51 of
1970.
3 Ins. by Act 25 of 1954
4 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)

Sec. 2
(i) cause material impairment to the health of the persons
engaged in or connected therewith, or
(ii) result in the pollution of the general environment:
Provided that the State Government may, by notification in the Official
Gazette, amend the First Schedule by way of addition, omission or variation, of
any industry specified in the said Schedule.]
(d) “young person” means a person who is either a child or an
adolescent;
(e) “day” means a period of twenty-four hours beginning at
midnight:
(f) “week” means a period of seven days beginning at midnight on
Saturday night or such other night as may be approved in
writing for a particular area by the Chief Inspector of Factories;
(g) “power” means electrical energy, or any other form of energy
which is mechanically transmitted and is not generated by
human or animal agency;
(h) “prime mover” means any engine, motor or other appliance
which generates or otherwise provides power;
(i) “transmission machinery” means any shaft, wheel, drum pulley,
system of pulleys, coupling, clutch, driving belt or other
appliance or device by which the motion of a prime mover is
transmitted to or received by any machinery or appliance;
(j) “machinery” includes prime movers, transmission machinery
and all other appliances whereby power is generated,
transformed, transmitted or applied;
(k) “manufacturing process” means any process for-
(i) making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing,
packing, oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up,
demolishing or otherwise treating or adapting any article
or substance with a view to its use, sale, transport,
delivery or disposal; or
1[(ii) pumping oil, water, sewage, or any other substance; or]
(iii) generating, transforming or transmitting power; or
2[(iv) composing types for printing, printing by letter press,
lithography, photogravure or other similar process or
book-binding;] 3[or]
(v) constructing, reconstructing, repairing, refitting,
finishing or breaking up ships or vessels; or
4(vi) preserving or storing any article in cold storage.]
(l) “worker” means a person 5[employed, directly or by or through
any agency (including a contractor) with or without the
knowledge of the principal employer, whether for remuneration
or not,] in any manufacturing process, or in cleaning any part of

1 Cl. (ii) reading “pumping oil, water, sewage, or” sub. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f.
26.10.1976)
2 Cl. (iv) by Act 25 of 1954.
3 Ins. cls. (iv) and (v), the word “or” added by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Cl. (vi) ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
5 Subs. for “employed directly or through any agency, whether for wages or not” by Act 94
of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).

the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process, or
in any other kind of work incidental to, or connected with, the
manufacturing process, or the subject of the manufacturing
process, 1[but does not include any member of the armed forces
of the Union;]
(m) “factory” means any premises including the precints thereof-
(i) whereon ten or more workers are working, or were
working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and
in any part of which a manufacturing process is being
carried on with the aid of power, or is ordinarily so
carried on, or
(ii) whereon twenty or more workers are working, or were
working on any day of the preceding twelve months, and
in any part of which a manufacturing process is being
carried on without the aid of power, or is ordinarily so
carried on,
but does not include a mine subject to the operation of 2[the Mines Act, 1952 (35
of 1952) or 3[a mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union, a railway
running shed or a hotel, restaurant or eating place;]
4[Explanation 5[I].-For computing the number of workers for the purposes of
this clause all the workers in 6[different groups and relays in a day shall be taken
taken into account;]
7[Explanation II.-For the purposes of this clause, the mere fact that an
Electronic Data Processing Unit or a Computer Unit is installed in any premises
or part thereof, shall not be construed to make it a factory if no manufacturing
process is being carried on in such premises or part thereof.];
(n) “occupier” of a factory means the person who has ultimate
control over the affairs of the factory,
8[***]
9[Provided that-
(i) in the case of a firm or other association of individuals, any one
of the individual partners or members thereof shall be deemed to
be the occupier;
(ii) in the case of a company, any one of the directors, shall be
deemed to be the occupier;
(iii) in the case of a factory owned or controlled by the Central
Government, or any State Government, or any local authority,
the person or persons appointed to manage the affairs of the
factory by the Central Government, the State Government or the
local authority, as the case may be, shall be deemed to be the
occupier]:

1 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
2 Subs. Šfor “The Indian Mines Act,1923 (4 of 1923)” by Act 25 of 1954
3 Subs. for “A railway running shed” by Act 94 of 1976
4 Explanation ins. by Act 94 of 1976
5 Renumbered by Act 20 of 1987
6 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.2.1987)
7 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987
8 Del. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
9 Proviso by ibid. Ins. by Act 20 of 1987

Sec. 3
1[
2[Provided further that] in the case of a ship which is being repaired, or on
on which maintenance work is being carried out, in a dry dock which is available
for hire,-
(1) the owner of the dock shall be deemed to be the occupier for the
purposes of any matter provided for by or under-
(a) section 6, section 7, 3[section 7A, section 7B], section 11
11 or section 12;
(b) section 17, in so far as it relates to the providing and
maintenance of sufficient and suitable lighting in or
around the dock;
(c) section 18, section 19, section 42, section 46, section 47,
or section 49, in relation to the workers employed on
such repair or maintenance;
(2) the owner of the ship or his agent or master or other officer-incharge
of the ship or any person who contracts with such owner,
agent or master or other officer-in-charge to carry out the repair
or maintenance work shall be deemed to be the occupier for the
purposes of any matter provided for by or under section 13,
section 14, section 16 or section 17 (save as otherwise provided
in this proviso) or Chapter IV (except section 27 or section 43,
section 44 or section 45, Chapter VI, Chapter VII, Chapter VIII or
Chapter IX or section 108, section 109, or section 110, in
relation to-
(a) the workers employed directly by him, or by or through
any agency; and
(b) the machinery, plant or premises in use for the purpose
of carrying out such repair or maintenance work by such
owner, agent, master or other officer-in-charge or
person;]
(o) 4[***]
(p) “prescribed means prescribed by rules made by the 5[State]
Government under this Act;
(q) 6[***]
(r) where work of the same kind is carried out by two or more sets
of workers working during different periods of the day, each of
such sets is called a 7[“Group” or “relay”] and each of such
periods is called a “shift”.
3. References to time of day.- In this Act references to time of day are
references to Indian Standard Time, being five and half hours ahead of
Greenwich Mean Time:
Provided that for any area in which Indian Standard Time is not ordinarily
observed the 8[State] Government may make rules-

1 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Omitted by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
6 Omitted by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
7 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
8 Sub. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950.

Sec. 6 The Factories Act, 1948 5
(a) specifying the area,
(b) defining the local mean time ordinarily observed therein, and
(c) permitting such time to be observed in all or any of the factories
situated in the area.
1[4. Power to declare different departments to be separate factories or
two or more factories to be a single factory.- The State Government may2 [on
its own or on application made in this behalf by an occupier, direct, by an order
in writing, 3[and subject to such conditions as it may deem fit], that for all or any
any of the purposes of this Act different departments or branches of a factory of
the occupier specified in the application shall be treated as separate factories or
that two or more factories of the occupier specified in the application shall be
treated as a single factory:]
4[Provided that no order under this section shall be made by the State
Government on its own motion unless an opportunity of being heard is given to
the occupier.]
5. Power to exempt during public emergency.- In any case of public
emergency the 5[State] Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
exempt any factory or class or description of factories from all or any of the
provisions of this Act 6[except section 67] for such period and subject to such
conditions as it may think fit:
Provided that no such notification shall be made for a period exceeding three
months at a time.
7[Explanation.- For the purposes of this section “public emergency” means a
grave emergency whereby the security of India or any part of the territory thereof
is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance.]
6. Approval, licensing and registration of factories.- (1) The 8[State]
Government may make rules-
9[(a) requiring, for the purposes of this Act, the submission of plans of
any class or description of factories to the Chief Inspector or the
State Government;]
10[(aa) requiring the previous permission in writing of the 11[State]
Government or the Chief Inspector to be obtained for the site on
which the factory is to be situated and for the construction or
extension of any factory or class or description of factories;
(b) requiring for the purpose of considering applications for such
permission the submission of plans and specifications;
(c) prescribing the nature of such plans and specifications and by
whom they shall be certified;

1 Subs. by Act 25 of 1954.
2 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Added by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
6 Ins. by Act 25 of 1954
7 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
8 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
9 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
10 Original Cl. (a) relettered as Cl.(aa) by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
11 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
6 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec.
(d) requiring the registration and licensing of factories or any class
or description of factories, and prescribing the fees payable for
such registration and licensing and for the renewal of licences;
(e) requiring that no licence shall be granted or renewed unless the
notice specified in section 7 has been given.
(2) If on an application for permission referred to in 1[clause (aa)] of subsection
(1) accompanied by the plans and specifications required by the rules
made under clause (b) of that sub-section, sent to the 2[State] Government or
Chief Inspector by registered post, no order is communicated to the applicant
within three months from the date on which it is so sent, the permission applied
for the said application shall be deemed to have been granted.
(3) Where a 3[State] Government or a Chief Inspector refuses to grant
permission to the site, construction or extension of factory or to the registration
and licensing of a factory, the applicant may within thirty days of the date of
such refusal appeal to the Central Government if the decision appealed from was
of the 4[State] Government and to the 5[State] Government in any other case.
Explanation.-A factory shall not be deemed to be extended within the
meaning of this section by reason only of the replacement of any plant or
machinery, or within such limits as may be prescribed, of the addition of any
plant or machinery, 6[if such replacement or addition does not reduce the
minimum clear space required for safe working around the plant or machinery or
adversely affect the environmental conditions from the evolution or emission of
steam, heat or dust or fumes injurious to health.]
7. Notice by occupier.- (1) The occupier shall, at least fifteen days before he
begins to occupy or use any premises as a factory, send to the Chief Inspector a
written notice containing-
(a) the name and situation of the factory;
(b) the name and address of the occupier;
7[(bb) the name and address of the owner of the premises or building
(including the precincts thereof) referred to in section 93;]
(c) the address to which communications relating to the factory may
be sent;
(d) the nature of the manufacturing process-
(i) carried on in the factory during the last twelve months in
the case of factories in existence on the date of the
commencement of this Act, and
(ii) to be carried on in the factory during the next twelve
months in the case of all factories;
8[(e) the total rated horse-power installed or to be installed in the
factory, which shall not include the rated horse-power of any
separate stand by plant;]

1 Subs. for “clause (a)” Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 (w.e.f. 16.10.1976)
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 (w.e.f. 16.10.1976).
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 (w.e.f. 16.10.1976).
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 (w.e.f. 16.10.1976).
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 (w.e.f. 16.10.1976).
6 Ins. by Factories (Amendment) Act, 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
7 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976
8 Cl.(e) subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
Sec. 7A The Factories Act, 1948 7
(f) the name of the manager of the factory for the purposes of this
Act;
(g) the number of workers likely to be employed in the factory;
(h) the average number of workers per day employed during the last
twelve months in the case of a factory in existence on the date of
the commencement of this Act;
(i) such other particulars as may be prescribed.
(2) In respect of all establishments which come within the scope of the Act
for the first time, the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector
containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) within thirty days from the
date of the commencement of this Act.
(3) Before a factory engaged in a manufacturing process which is ordinarily
carried on for less than one hundred and eighty working days in the year
resumes working, the occupier shall send a written notice to the Chief Inspector
containing the particulars specified in sub-section (1) 1[at least thirty days] before
the date of the commencement of work.
(4) Whenever a new manager is appointed, the occupier shall send to the
2[Inspector a written notice and to the Chief Inspector a copy thereof] within
seven days from the date on which such person takes over charge.
(5) During any period for which no person has been designated as manager
of a factory or during which the person designated does not manage the factory,
any person found acting as manager, or if no such person is found, the occupier
himself, shall be deemed to be the manager of the factory for the purposes of this
Act.
3[7A. General duties of the occupier.- (1) Every occupier shall ensure, so
far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all workers
while they are at work in the factory.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub- section (1),
the matters to which such duty extends, shall include-
(a) the provision and maintenance of plant and systems of work in
the factory that are safe and without risk to health;
(b) the arrangements in the factory for ensuring safety and absence
of risks to health in connection with the use, handling, storage
and transport of articles and substances;
(c) the provisions of such information, instruction, training and
supervision as are necessary to ensure the health and safety of
all workers at work;
(d) the maintenance of all places of work in the factory in a
condition that is safe and without risks to health and the
provision and maintenance of such means of access to, and
egress from, such places as are safe and without such risks;
(e) the provision, or maintenance or monitoring of such working
environment in the factory for the workers that is safe, without
risk to health and adequate as regards facilities and
arrangements for their welfare at work.

1 Subs. for “within thirty days” by Act 40 of 1949.
2 Subs. for “Chief Inspector a written notice” by Act 25 of 1954
3 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
8 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 7B
(3) Except in such cases as may be prescribed, every occupier shall prepare,
and, as often as may be appropriate, revise, a written statement of his general
policy with respect to the health and safety of the workers at work and the
organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that
policy, and to bring the statement and any revision thereof to the notice of all the
workers in such manner as may be prescribed.]
1[7B. General duties of manufacturers, etc. as regards articles and
substances for use in factories.- (1) Every person who designs, manufactures,
imports or supplies any article for use in any factory shall-
(a) ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the article is so
designed and constructed as to be safe and without risks to the
health of the workers when properly used;
(b) carry out or arrange for the carrying out of such tests and
examination as may be considered necessary for the effective
implementation of the provisions of clause (a).
(c) take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that adequate
information will be available-
(i) in connection with the use of the article in any factory;
(ii) about the use for which it is designed and tested; and
(iii) about any conditions necessary to ensure that the
article, when put to such use, will be safe, and without
risks to the health of the workers:
Provided that where an article is designed or manufactured outside India, it
shall be obligatory on the part of the importer to see-
(a) that the article conforms to the same standards if such article is
manufactured in India, or
(b) If the standards adopted in the country outside for the
manufacture of such article is above the standards adopted in
India, that the article conforms to such standards.
(2) Every person, who undertakes to design or manufacture any article for
use in any factory may carry out or arrange for the carrying out of necessary
research with a view to the discovery and, so far as is reasonably practicable, the
elimination or minimization of any risks to the health or safety of the workers to
which the design or article may give rise.
(3) Nothing contained in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be construed to
require a person to repeat the testing, examination or research which has been
carried out otherwise than by him or at his instance in so far as it is reasonable
for him to rely on the results thereof for the purposes of the said sub-sections.
(4) Any duty imposed on any person by sub-sections (1) and (2) shall extend
only to things done in the course of business carried on by him and to matters
within his control.
(5) Where a person designs, manufactures, imports or supplies an article on
the basis of a written undertaking by the user of such article to take the steps
specified in such undertaking to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that
the article will be safe and without risks to the health of the workers when
properly used, the undertaking shall have the effect of relieving the person
designing, manufacturing, importing or supplying the article from the duty
imposed by clause (a) of sub-section (1) to such extent as is reasonable having
regard to the terms of the undertaking.

1 Ins. by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987 (w.e.f. 1.6.1988)
Sec. The Factories Act, 1948 9
(6) For the purposes of this section, an article is not to be regarded as
properly used if it is used without regard to any information or advice relating to
its use which has been made available by the person who has designed,
manufactured, imported or supplied the article.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this section “article” shall include plant
and machinery.]
CHAPTER II
THE INSPECTING STAFF
8. Inspectors.- (1) The 1[State] Government may, by notification in the
Official Gazette, appoint such persons as possess the prescribed qualification to
be Inspectors for the purposes of this Act and may assign to them such local
limits as it may think fit.
(2) The 2[State] Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
appoint any person to be a Chief Inspector who shall, in addition to the powers
conferred on a Chief Inspector under this Act, exercise the powers of an Inspector
throughout the State.
3[(2A) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
appoint as many Additional Chief Inspectors, Joint Chief Inspectors and Deputy
Chief Inspectors and as many other officers as it thinks fit to assist the Chief
Inspector and to exercise such of the powers of the Chief Inspector as may be
specified in such notification.
(2B) Every Additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector, Deputy Chief
Inspector and every other officer appointed under sub-section (2A) shall, in
addition to the powers of a Chief Inspector specified in the notification by which
he is appointed, exercise the powers of an Inspector throughout the State.]
(3) No person shall be appointed under sub-section (1), sub-section (2),
4[sub-section (2A)] or sub-section (5), or, having been so appointed, shall
continue to hold office, who is or becomes directly or indirectly interested in a
factory or in any process or business carried on therein or in any patent or
machinery connected therewith.
(4) Every District Magistrate shall be an Inspector for his district.
(5) The 5[State] Government may also, by notification as aforesaid, appoint
such public officers as it thinks fit to be Additional Inspectors for all or any of the
purposes of this Act, within such local limits as it may assign to them
respectively.
(6) In any area where there are more Inspectors than one, the 6[State]
Government may, by notification as aforesaid, declare the powers, which such
Inspectors shall respectively exercise and the Inspector to whom the prescribed
notices are to be sent.
(7) 7[Every Chief Inspector, Additional Chief Inspector, Joint Chief Inspector,
Deputy Chief Inspector, Inspector and every other officer appointed under this
section] shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of the Indian

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
3 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
6 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
7 Subs. for “Every Chief Inspector and Inspector” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
10 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec.
Penal Code (45 of 1860), and shall be officially subordinate to such authority as
the State Government may specify in this behalf.
9. Powers of Inspectors.- Subject to any rules made in this behalf, an
Inspector may, within the local limits for which he is appointed-
(a) enter, with such assistants, being persons in the service of the
Government, or any local or other public authority, 1[or with an
expert] as he thinks fit, any place which is used, or which he has
reason to believe is used, as a factory;
2[(b) make examination of the premises, plant, machinery, article or
substance.
(c) inquire into any accident or dangerous occurrence, whether
resulting in bodily injury, disability or not, and take on the spot
or otherwise statements of any person which he may consider
necessary for such inquiry;
(d) require the production of any prescribed register or any other
document relating to the factory;
(e) seize, or take copies of any register, record or other document or
any portion thereof, as he may consider necessary in respect of
any offence under this Act, which he has reason to believe, has
been committed;
(f) direct the occupier that any premises or any part thereof, or
anything lying therein, shall be left undisturbed (whether
generally or in particular respects) for so long as is necessary for
the purpose of any examination under clause (b);
(g) take measurements and photographs and make such recordings
as he considers necessary for the purpose of any examination
under clause (b), taking with him any necessary instrument or
equipment;
(h) in case of any article or substance found in any premises, being
an article or substance which appears to him as having caused
or is likely to cause danger to the health or safety of the workers,
direct it to be dismantled or subject it to any process or test (but
not so as to damage or destroy it unless the same is, in the
circumstances necessary, for carrying out the purposes of this
Act), and take possession of any such article or substance or a
part thereof, and detain it for so long as is necessary for such
examination;
(i) exercise such other powers as may be prescribed:]
Provided that no person shall be compelled under this section to answer any
question or give any evidence tending to incriminate himself.
10. Certifying surgeons.- (1) The 3[State] Government may appoint
qualified medical practitioners to be certifying surgeons for the purposes of this
Act within such local limits or for such factory or class or description of factories
as it may assign to them respectively.

1 Ins. by 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
Sec. 11 The Factories Act, 1948 11
(2) A certifying surgeon may, with the approval of the 1[State] Government,
authorise any qualified medical practitioner to exercise any of his powers under
this Act for such period as the certifying surgeon may specify and subject to such
conditions as the 2[State] Government may think fit to impose, and references in
this Act to a certifying surgeon shall be deemed to include references to any
qualified medical practitioner when so authorised.
(3) No person shall be appointed to be, or authorised to exercise the powers
of, a certifying surgeon, or having been so appointed or authorised, continue to
exercise such powers, who is or becomes the occupier of a factory or is or
becomes directly or indirectly interested therein or in any process or business
carried on therein or in any patent or machinery connected therewith or is
otherwise in the employ of the factory:
3[Provided that the State Government may, by order in writing and subject
to such conditions as may be specified in the order, exempt any person or class
of persons from the provisions of this sub- section in respect of any factory or
class or description of factories.]
(4) The certifying surgeon shall carry out such duties as may be prescribed
in connection with-
(a) the examination and certification of young persons under this
Act;
(b) the examination of persons engaged in factories in such
dangerous occupations or processes as may be prescribed;
(c) the exercising of such medical supervision as may be prescribed
for any factory or class or description of factories where-
(i) cases of illness have occurred which it is reasonable to
believe are due to the nature of the manufacturing
process carried on, or other conditions of work prevailing
therein;
(ii) by reason of any change in the manufacturing process
carried on or in the substances used therein or by
reason of the adoption of any new manufacturing
process or of any new substance for use in a
manufacturing process, there is a likelihood of injury to
the health of workers employed in that manufacturing
process;
(iii) young persons are, or are about to be, employed in any
work which is likely to cause injury to their health.
Explanation.-In this section “qualified medical practitioner” means a person
holding a qualification granted by an authority specified in the Schedule to the
Indian Medical Degrees Act, 1916 (VII of 1916), or in the Schedules to the Indian
Medical Council Act, 1933 (XXVII of 1933).
CHAPTER III
HEALTH
11. Cleanliness.- (1) Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia
arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular-
(a) accumulations of dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by
sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
3 Proviso ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
12 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 12
benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages, and
disposed of in a suitable manner;
(b) the floor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in
every week by washing, using disinfectant, where necessary, or
by some other effective method;
(c) where a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any
manufacturing process to such extent as is capable of being
drained, effective means of drainage shall be provided and
maintained;
(d) all inside walls and partitions, all ceilings or tops of rooms and
all walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases shall-
(i) where they are 1[painted otherwise than with washable
water paint] or varnished, be repainted or revarnished at
least once in every period of five years;
2[(ia) where they are painted with washable water-paint, be
repainted with at least one coat of such paint at least
once in every period of three years and washed at least
once in every period of six months;]
(ii) where they are painted or vanished or where they have
smooth impervious surfaces, be cleaned at least once in
every period of fourteen months by such method as may
be prescribed;
(iii) in any other case, be kept white-washed, or colourwashed,
and the white-washing or colour-washing shall
be carried out at least once in every period of fourteen
months;
3[(dd) all doors and window frames and other wooden or metallic
framework and shutters shall be kept painted or varnished and
the painting or varnishing shall be carried out at least once in
every period of five years;]
(e) the dates on which the processes required by clause (d) are
carried out shall be entered in the prescribed register.
(2) If, in view of the nature of the operations carried on 4[in a factory or class
or description of factories or any part of a factory or class or description of
factories], it is not possible for the occupier to comply with all or any of the
provisions of sub-section (1), the 5[State] Government may, by order exempt such
factory or class or description of factories 6[or part] from any of the provisions of
that sub-section and specify alternative methods for keeping the factory in a
clean state.
12. Disposal of wastes and effluents.-
7[(1) Effective arrangements shall be
be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the
manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous, and
for their disposal.]

1 Subs. for “painted” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
3 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Subs. for “in a factory” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
6 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
7 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
Sec. 15 The Factories Act, 1948 13
(2) The 1[State] Government may make rules prescribing the arrangements
to be made under sub-section (1) or requiring that the arrangements made in
accordance with sub-section (1) shall be approved by such authority as may be
prescribed.
13. Ventilation and temperature.- (1) Effective and suitable provision shall
be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom-
(a) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and
(b) such a temperature as will secure to workers therein reasonable
conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health;
and in particular-
(i) walls and roofs shall be of such material and so designed that
such temperature shall not be exceeded but kept as low as
practicable;
(ii) where the nature of the work carried on in the factory involves,
or is likely to involve, the production of excessively high
temperatures, such adequate measures as are practicable shall
be taken to protect the workers therefrom, by separating the
process which produces such temperatures from the workroom,
by insulating the hot parts or by other effective means.
(2) The 2[State] Government may prescribe a standard of adequate
ventilation and reasonable temperature for any factory or class or description of
factories or parts thereof and direct that 3[proper measuring instruments, at
such places and in such position as may be specified, shall be provided and such
records, as may be prescribed, shall be maintained.]
4[(3) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that excessively high temperatures
in any factory can be reduced by the adoption of suitable measures, he may,
without prejudice to the rules made under sub-section (2), serve on the occupier,
an order in writing specifying the measures which, in his opinion, should be
adopted, and requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.]
14. Dust and fume.- (1) In every factory in which, by reason of the
manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other
impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or
offensive to the workers employed therein, or any dust in substantial quantities,
effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in
any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it
shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or
other impurity, and such point shall be enclosed as far as possible.
(2) In any factory no stationary internal combustion engine shall be operated
unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air, and no other internal
combustion engine shall be operated in any room unless effective measures have
been taken to prevent such accumulation of fumes therefrom as are likely to be
injurious to workers employed in the room.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
14 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 15
15. Artificial humidification.- (1) In respect of all factories in which the
humidity of the air is artificially increased, the 1[State] Government may make
rules-
(a) prescribing standards of humidification;
(b) regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the
humidity of the air;
(c) directing prescribed tests for determining the humidity of the air
to be correctly carried out and recorded;
(d) prescribing methods to be adopted for securing adequate
ventilation and cooling of the air in the workrooms.
(2) In any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased,
the water used for the purpose shall be taken from a public supply, or other
source of drinking water, or shall be effectively purified before it is so used.
(3) If it appears to an Inspector that the water used in a factory for
increasing humidity which is required to be effectively purified under sub-section
(2) is not effectively purified he may serve on the manager of the factory an order
in writing, specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted, and
requiring them to be carried out before specified date.
16. Over-crowding.- (1) No room in any factory shall be over-crowded to an
extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of sub-section (1), there shall be in
every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this
Act at least 2[9.9 cubic metres] and of a factory built after the commencement of
this Act at least 3[14.2 cubic metres] or space for every worker employed therein,
and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of any space
which is more than 4[4.2 metres] above the level of the floor of the room.
(3) If the Chief Inspector by order in writing so requires, there shall be
posted in each workroom of a factory a notice specifying the maximum number of
workers who may, in compliance with the provisions of this section, be employed
in the room.
(4) The Chief Inspector may by order in writing exempt, subject to such
conditions, if any, as he may think fit to impose, any workroom from the
provisions of this section, if he is satisfied that compliance therewith in respect of
the room is unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed
therein.
17. Lighting.- (1) In every part of a factory where workers are working or
passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting,
natural or artificial, or both.
(2) In every factory all glazed windows and skylights used for the lighting of
the workroom shall be kept clean on both the inner and outer surfaces and, so
far as compliance with the provisions of any rules made under sub-section (3) of
section 13 will allow, free from obstruction.
(3) In every factory effective provision shall, so far as practicable, be made
for the prevention of-

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Sec. 19 The Factories Act, 1948 15
(a) glare, either directly from a source of light or by reflection from a
smooth or polished surface;
(b) the formation of shadows to such an extent as to cause eyestrain
or the risk of accident to any worker.
(4) The 1[State] Government may prescribe standards of sufficient and
suitable lighting for factories or for any class or description of factories or for any
manufacturing process.
18. Drinking water.- (1) In every factory effective arrangements shall be
made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all
workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.
(2) All such points shall be legibly marked “drinking water” in a language
understood by a majority of the workers employed in the factory, and no such
point shall be situated within 2[six metres of any washing place, urinal, latrine,
spittoom, open drain carrying sullage or effluent or any other source of
contamination] unless a shorter distance is approved in writing by the Chief
Inspector.
(3) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are
ordinarily employed provision shall be made for cool drinking water during hot
weather by effective means and for distribution thereof.
(4) In respect of all factories or any class or description of factories the
3[State] Government may make rules for securing compliance with the provisions
of sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) and for the examination by prescribed authorities
of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories.
19. Latrines and urinals.- (1) In every factory-
(a) sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation of prescribed types
shall be provided conveniently situated and accessible to workers
at all times while they are at the factory;
(b) separate enclosed accommodation shall be provided for male and
female workers;
(c) such accommodation shall be adequately lighted and ventilated,
and no latrine or urinal shall, unless specially exempted in
writing by the Chief Inspector, communicate with any workroom
except through an intervening open space or ventilated passage;
(d) all such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and
sanitary condition at all times;
(e) sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty it would be to
keep clean latrines, urinals and washing places.
(2) In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are
ordinarily employed-
(a) all latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of prescribed
sanitary types;
(b) the floors and internal walls, up to a height of 4[Ninety
Centimetres], of the latrines and urinals and the sanitary blocks
shall be laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished to provide a
smooth polished impervious surface;

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
16 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 20
(c) without prejudice to the provisions of clauses (d) and (e) of subsection
(1) the floors, portions of the walls and blocks so laid or
finished and the sanitary pans of latrines and urinals shall be
thoroughly washed and cleaned at least once in every seven days
with suitable detergents or disinfectants or with both.
(3) The 1[State] Government may prescribe the number of latrines and
urinals to be provided in any factory in proportion to the numbers of male and
female workers ordinarily employed therein, and provide for such further matters
in respect of sanitation in factories, including the obligation of workers in this
regard, as it considers necessary in the interest of the health of the workers
employed therein.
20. Spittoons.- (1) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient
number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean
and hygienic condition.
(2) The 2[State] Government may make rules, prescribing the type and the
number of spittoons to be provided and their location in any factory and provide
for such further matters relating to their maintenance in a clean and hygienic
condition.
(3) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the
spittoons provided for the purpose and a notice containing this provision and the
penalty for its violation shall be prominently displayed at suitable places in the
premises.
(4) Whoever spits in contravention of sub-section (3) shall be punishable
with fine not exceeding five rupees.
CHAPTER IV
SAFETY
21. Fencing of machinery.- (1) In every factory the following, namely:-
(i) every moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected
to a prime mover, whether the prime mover or flywheel is in the
engine house or not;
(ii) the headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water
turbine;
(iii) any part of a stock-bar which projects beyond the head stock of
a lathe; and
(iv) unless they are in such position or of such construction as to be
safe to every person employed in the factory as they would be if
they were securely fenced, the following, namely-
(a) every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary
converter;
(b) every part of transmission machinery; and
(c) every dangerous part of any other machinery;
shall be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction which 3[shall
be constantly maintained and kept in position] while the parts of machinery they
are fencing are in motion or in use:

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950
3 Subs. for “shall be kept in position” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
Sec. 22 The Factories Act, 1948 17
1[Provided that for the purpose of determining whether any part of
machinery is in such position or is of such construction as to be safe as
aforesaid, account shall not be taken of any occasion when-
(i) it is necessary to make an examination of any part of the
machinery aforesaid while it is in motion or, as a result of such
examination, to carry out lubrication or other adjusting
operation while the machinery is in motion, being an
examination or operation which it is necessary to be carried out
while that part of the machinery is in motion, or
(ii) in the case of any part of a transmission machinery used in such
process as may be prescribed (being a process of a continuous
nature the carrying on of which shall be, or is likely to be,
substantially interfered with by the stoppage of that part of the
machinery), it is necessary to make an examination of such part
of the machinery while it is in motion or, as a result of such
examination, to carry out any mounting or shipping of belts or
lubrication or other adjusting operation while the machinery is
in motion,
and such examination or operation is made or carried out in accordance with the
provisions of sub-section (1) of section 22.]
(2) The 2[State] Government may by rules prescribe such further precautions
as it may consider necessary in respect of any particular machinery or part
thereof, or exempt, subject to such condition as may be prescribed, for securing
the safety of the workers any particular machinery or part thereof from the
provisions of this section.
22. Work on or near machinery in motion.-
3[(1) Where in any factory it
becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery referred to in section 21,
while the machinery is in motion, or as a result of such examination, to carry
out-
(a) in a case referred to in clause (i) of the proviso to sub-section (1)
of section 21, lubrication or other adjusting operation; or
(b) in a case referred to in clause (ii) of the proviso aforesaid, any
mounting or shipping of belts or lubrication or other adjusting
operation,
while the machinery is in motion, such examination or operation shall be made
or carried out only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting
clothing (which shall be supplied by the occupier) whose name has been recorded
in the register prescribed in this behalf and who has been furnished with a
certificate of his appointment, and while he is so engaged:-
(a) such worker shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley unless-
(i) the belt is not more than fifteen centimetres in width;
(ii) the pulley is normally for the purpose of drive and not
merely a fly-wheel or balance wheel (in which case a belt
is not permissible);
(iii) the belt joint is either laced or flush with the belt;

1 Subs. for original proviso by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950.
3 Opening paragraph and Cl.(s) Subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
18 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 23
(iv) the belt, including the joint and the pulley rim, are in
good repair,
(v) there is reasonable clearance between the pulley and any
fixed plant or structure;
(vi) secure foothold and, where necessary, secure handhold,
are provided for the operator; and
(vii) any ladder in use for carrying out any examination or
operation aforesaid is securely fixed or lashed or is firmly
held by a second person.]
(b) without prejudice to any other provision of this Act relating to
the fencing of machinery, every set screw, bolt and key on any
revolving shaft, spindle, wheel or pinion, and all spur, worm and
other toothed or friction gearing in motion with which such
worker otherwise be liable to come into contact, shall be securely
fenced to prevent such contact.
1[(2) No woman or young person shall be allowed to clean, lubricate or
adjust any part of a prime mover or of any transmission machinery while the
prime mover or transmission machinery is in motion, or to clean, lubricate or
adjust any part of any machine if the cleaning, lubrication or adjustment thereof
would expose the woman or young person to risk of injury from any moving part
either of that machine or of any adjacent machinery.]
(3) The 2[State] Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
prohibit, in any specified factory or class or description of factories, the cleaning,
lubricating or adjusting by any person of specified parts of machinery when those
parts are in motion.
23. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines.- (1) No
young person 3[shall be required or allowed to work] at any machine to which
this section applies, unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising
in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed and-
(a) has received sufficient training in work at the machine, or
(b) is under adequate supervision by a person who has a thorough
knowledge and experience of the machine.
(2) Sub-section (1) shall apply to such machines as may be prescribed by the
4[State] Government, being machines which in its opinion are of such a
dangerous character that young persons ought not to work at them unless the
foregoing requirements are complied with.
24. Striking gear and devices for cutting off power.- (1) In every factory-
(a) suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance
shall be provided and maintained and used to move driving belts
to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the
transmission machinery, and such gear or appliances shall be so
constructed, placed and maintained as to prevent the belt from
creeping back on to the fast pulley;
(b) driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest or ride
upon shafting in motion.

1 Sub-sec.(2) sub. by Act 25 of 1954.
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987.)
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Order, 1950.
Sec. 28 The Factories Act, 1948 19
(2) In every factory suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from
running machinery shall be provided and maintained in every workroom:
Provided that in respect of factories in operation before the commencement
of this Act, the provisions of this sub-section shall apply only to workrooms in
which electricity is used as power.
1[(3) When a device, which can inadvertently shift from “off” to “on” position,
is provided in a factory to cut-off power, arrangements shall be provided for
locking the device in safe position to prevent accidental starting of the
transmission machinery or other machines to which the device is fitted.]
25. Self-acting machines.- No traversing part of a self-acting machine in
any factory and no material carried thereon shall, if the space over which it runs
is a space over which any person is liable to pass, whether in the course of his
employment or otherwise, be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse
within a distance of 2[forty-five centimetres] from any fixed structure which is not
part of the machine:
Provided that the Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a
machine installed before the commencement of this Act, which does not comply
with the requirements of this section on such conditions for ensuring safety as he
may think fit to impose.
26. Casing of new machinery.- (1) In all machinery driven by power and
installed in any factory after the commencement of this Act,-
(a) every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel
or pinion shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively
guarded as to prevent danger;
(b) all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does
not require frequent adjustment while in motion shall be
completely encased, unless it is so situated as to be as safe as it
would be if it were completely encased.
(2) Whoever sells or lets on hire or, as agent of a seller or hirer, causes or
procures to be sold or let or hire, for use in a factory any machinery driven by
power which does not comply with the provisions of 3[sub-section (1) or any rules
made under sub-section (3)], shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term
which may extend to three months or with fine which may extend to five hundred
rupees or with both.
4[(3) The State Government may make rules specifying further safeguards to
be provided in respect of any other dangerous part of any particular machine or
class or description of machines.]
27. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cottonopeners.-
No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory for
pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work:
Provided that if the feed-end of a cotton-opener is in a room separated from
the delivery end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the
Inspector may in any particular case specify in writing, women and children may
be employed on the side of the partition where the feed-end in situated.

1 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
3 Subs. for “sub-sec.(1)” by Act 25 of 1954
4 Sub-sec.(3) sub. by Act 25 of 1954.
20 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 28
28. Hoists and lifts.- (1) In every factory-
(a) every hoist and lift shall be-
(i) of good mechanical construction, sound material and
adequate strength;
(ii) properly maintained, and shall be thoroughly examined
by a competent person at least once in every period of
six months and a register shall be kept containing the
prescribed particulars of every such examination.
(b) every hoist way and lift way shall be sufficiently protected by an
enclosure fitted with gates, and the hoist or lift and every such
enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any person or
thing from being trapped between any part of the hoist or lift and
any fixed structure or moving part;
(c) the maximum safe working load shall be plainly marked on every
hoist or lift, and no load greater than such load shall be carried
thereon;
(d) the cage of every hoist or lift used for carrying persons shall be
fitted with a gate on each side from which access is afforded to a
landing;
(e) every gate referred to in clause (b) or clause (d) shall be fitted
with inter-locking or other efficient device to secure that the gate
cannot be opened except when the cage is at the landing and
that the cage cannot be moved unless the gate is closed.
(2) The following additional requirements shall apply to hoists and lifts used
for carrying persons and installed or reconstructed in a factory after the
commencement of this Act, namely:-
(a) where the cage is supported by rope or chain, there shall be at
least two ropes or chains separately connected with the cage and
balance weight, and each rope or chain with its attachments
shall be capable of carrying the whole weight of the cage together
with its maximum load;
(b) efficient devices shall be provided and maintained capable of
supporting the cage together with its maximum load in the event
of breakage of the ropes, chains or attachments;
(c) an efficient automatic device shall be provided and maintained to
prevent the cage from over-running.
(3) The Chief Inspector may permit the continued use of a hoist or lift
installed in a factory before the commencement of this Act which does not fully
comply with the provisions of sub-section (1) upon such conditions for ensuring
safety as he may think fit to impose.
(4) The 1[State] Government may, if in respect of any class or description of
hoist or lift, it is of opinion that it would be unreasonable to enforce any
requirement of sub-sections (1) and (2), by order direct that such requirement
shall not apply to such class or description of hoist or lift.
2[Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, no lifting machine or
appliance shall be deemed to be a hoist or lift unless it has a platform or cage,
the direction or movement of which is restricted by a guide or guides.]

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Sec. 29 The Factories Act, 1948 21
1[29. Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles.- (1) In any
factory the following provisions shall be complied with in respect of every lifting
machine other than a hoist and lift and every chain, rope and lifting tackle for
the purpose of raising or lowering persons, goods or materials:-
(a) all parts, including the working gear, whether fixed or moveable,
of every lifting machine and every chain, rope or lifting tackle
shall be-
(i) of good construction, sound material and adequate
strength and free from defects;
(ii) properly maintained; and
(iii) thoroughly examined by a competent person at least
once in every period of twelve months, or at such
intervals as the Chief Inspector may specify in writing;
and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed
particulars of every such examination;
(b) no lifting machine and no claim, rope or lifting tackle shall,
except for the purpose of test, be loaded beyond the safe working
load which shall be plainly marked thereon together with an
identification mark and duly entered in the prescribed register;
and where this is not practicable, a table showing the safe
working loads of every kind and size of lifting machine or, chain,
rope or lifting tackle in use shall be displayed in prominent
positions on the premises;
(c) while any person is employed or working on or near the wheel
track of a travelling crane in any place where he would be liable
to be struck by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to
ensure that the crane does not approach within 2[six metres] of
that place.
(2) The State Government may make rules in respect of any lifting machine
or any chain, rope of lifting tackle used in factories-
(a) prescribing further requirements to be complied with in addition
to those set out in this section;
(b) providing for exemption from compliance with all or any of the
requirements of this section, where in its opinion, such
compliance is unnecessary or impracticable.
(3) For the purposes of this section a lifting machine or a chain, rope or
lifting tackle shall be deemed to have been thoroughly examined if a visual
examination supplemented, if necessary, by other means and by the dismantling
of parts of the gear, has been carried out as carefully as the conditions permit in
order to arrive at a reliable conclusion as to the safety of the parts examined.
Explanation.-In this section-
(a) “lifting machine” means a crane, crab, winch, teagle, pulley
block, gin wheel, transporter or runway.
3[(b) “lifting tackle” means any chain, sling, rope sling, hook, shackle,
swivel, coupling, socket, clamp, tray or similar appliance,
whether fixed or movable, used in connection with the raising or
lowering of persons, or loads by use of lifting machines.]

1 Sec.29 subs. by Act 25 of 1954.
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
22 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 30
30. Revolving machinery.-(1) 1[In every factory] in which the process of
grinding is carried on there shall be permanently affixed to or placed near each
machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed
of every grindstone or abrasive wheel, the speed of the shaft or spindle upon
which the wheel is mounted, and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or
spindle necessary to secure such safe working peripheral speed.
(2) The speeds indicated in notices under sub-section (1) shall not be
exceeded.
(3) Effective measures shall be taken in every factory to ensure that the safe
working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket, flywheel, pulley,
disc or similar appliance driven by power is not exceeded.
31. Pressure Plant.-
2[(1) If in any factory, any plant or machinery or any
part thereof is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, effective
measures shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure of such plant
or machinery or part is not exceeded.]
(2) The 3[State] Government may make rules providing for the examination
and testing of any plant or machinery such as is referred to in sub-section (1)
and prescribing such other safety measures in relation thereto as may in its
opinion be necessary in any factory or class or description of factories.
4[(3) The State Government may, by rules, exempt, subject to such
conditions as may be specified therein, any part of any plant or machinery
referred to in sub-section (1) from the provisions of this section.]
32. Floors, stairs and means of access.- In every factory-
(a) all floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound
construction and properly maintained 5[and shall be kept free
from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to
slip],and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs,
passages and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails;
(b) there shall, so far as is reasonably practicable, be provided and
maintained safe means of access to every place at which any
person is at any time required to work.
6[(c) When any person has to work at a height from where he is likely
to fall, provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably
practicable, by fencing or otherwise, to ensure the safety of the
person so working.]
33. Pits, sumps, openings in floors, etc.- (1) In every factory fixed vessel,
sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which, by reasons of its
depth, situation, construction or contents, is or may be a source of danger, shall
be either securely covered or securely fenced.

1 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f.1.12.1987.)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
4 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
5 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
6 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Sec. 36A The Factories Act, 1948 23
(2) The 1[State] Government may, by order in writing, exempt, subject to
such conditions as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of
factories in respect of any vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening from compliance
with the provisions of this section.
34. Excessive weights.- (1) No person shall be employed in any factory to
lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury.
(2) The 2[State] Government may make rules prescribing the maximum
weights which may be lifted, carried or moved by adult men, adult women,
adolescents and children employed in factories or in any class or description of
factories or in carrying on any specified process.
35. Protection of eyes.- In respect of any such manufacturing process
carried on in any factory as may be prescribed, being a process which involves-
(a) risk of injury to the eyes from particles or fragments thrown off
in the course of the process, or
(b) risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light,
the 3[State] Government may by rules require that effective screens or
suitable goggles shall be provided for the protection of persons employed on, or in
the immediate vicinity of the process.
4[36. Precautions against dangerous fumes, gases, etc.- (1) No person
shall be required or allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or
other confined space in any factory in which any gas, fume, vapour or dust is
likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to persons being overcome
thereby, unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or other effective
means of egress.
(2) No person shall be required or allowed to enter any confined space as is
referred to in sub-section (1), until all practicable measures have been taken to
remove any gas, fume, vapour or dust, which may be present so as to bring its
level within the permissible limits and to prevent any ingress of such gas, fume,
vapour or dust and unless-
(a) a certificate in writing has been given by a competent person,
based on a test carried out by himself that the space is
reasonably free from dangerous gas, fume, vapour or dust; or
(b) such person is wearing suitable breathing apparatus and a belt
securely attached to a rope the free end of which is held by a
person outside the confined space.]
5[36A. Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light.- In any
factory-
(a) no portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage
exceeding twenty-four volts shall be permitted for use inside any

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
24 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 37
chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space
1[unless adequate safety devices are provided]; and
(b) if any inflammable gas, fume or dust is likely to be present in
such chamber, tank, vat, pit, pipe, flue or other confined space,
no lamp or light other than that of flame-proof construction shall
be permitted to be used therein.]
37. Explosive or inflammable dust, gas, etc.- (1) Where in any factory any
manufacturing process produces dust, gas, fume or vapour of such character
and to such extent as to be likely to explode on ignition, all practicable measures
shall be taken to prevent any such explosion by-
(a) effective enclosure of the plant or machinery used in the process;
(b) removal or prevention of the accumulation of such dust, gas,
fume or vapour;
(c) exclusion or effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.
(2) Where in any factory the plant or machinery used in a process such as is
referred to in sub-section (1) is not so constructed as to withstand the probable
pressure which such an explosion as aforesaid would produce, all practicable
measures shall be taken to restrict the spread and effect of the explosion by the
provisions in the plant or machinery of chokes, baffles, vents or other effective
appliances.
(3) Where any part of the plant or machinery in a factory contains any
explosive or inflammable gas or vapour under pressure greater than atmospheric
pressure, that part shall not be opened except in accordance with the following
provisions, namely:-
(a) before the fastening of any joint of any pipe connected with the
part or the fastening of the cover of any opening into the part is
loosened, any flow of the gas or vapour into the part of any such
pipe shall be effectively stopped by a stop valve or other means;
(b) before any such fastening as aforesaid is removed, all practicable
measures shall be taken to reduce the pressure of the gas or
vapour in the part or pipe to atmospheric pressure;
(c) where any such fastening as aforesaid has been loosened or
removed effective measures shall be taken to prevent any
explosive or inflammable gas or vapour from entering the part or
pipe until the fastening has been secured, or, as the case may
be, securely replaced:
Provided that the provisions of this sub-section shall not apply in the case of
plant or machinery installed in the open air.
(4) No plant, tank or vessel which contains or has contained any explosive or
inflammable substance shall be subjected in any factory to any welding, brazing,
soldering or cutting operation which involves the application of heat unless
adequate measures have first been taken to remove such substance and any
fumes arising therefrom or to render such substance and fumes non-explosive or
non-inflammable, and no such substance shall be allowed to enter such plant,
tank or vessel after any such operation until the metal has cooled sufficiently to
prevent any risk of igniting the substance.

1 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
Sec. 40 The Factories Act, 1948 25
(5) The 1[State] Government may by rules exempt, subject to such conditions
as may be prescribed, any factory or class or description of factories from
compliance with all or any of the provisions of this section.
2[38. Precautions in case of fire.- (1) In every factory, all practicable
measures shall be taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread, both
internally and externally, and to provide and maintain-
(a) safe means of escape for all persons in the event of a fire, and
(b) the necessary equipment and facilities for extinguishing fire.
(2) Effective measures shall be taken to ensure that in every factory all the
workers are familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and have been
adequately trained in the routine to be followed in such cases.
(3) The State Government may make rules, in respect of any factory or class
or description of factories, requiring the measures to be adopted to give effect to
the provisions of sub- sections (1) and (2).
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (a) of sub- section (1) or
sub-section (2), if the Chief Inspector, having regard to the nature of the work
carried on in any factory, the construction of such factory, special risk to life or
safety, or any other circumstances, is of the opinion that the measures provided
in the factory, whether as prescribed or not, for the purposes of clause (a) of subsection
(1) or sub-section (2), are inadequate, he may, by order in writing, require
that such additional measures as he may consider reasonable and necessary, be
provided in the factory before such date as is specified in the order.]
39. Power to require specifications of defective parts or test of
stability.- If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or
any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it
may be dangerous to human life or safety, he may serve on 3[the occupier or
manager or both] of the factory an order in writing requiring him before a
specified date-
(a) to furnish such drawings, specifications and other particulars as
may be necessary to determine whether such building, ways,
machinery or plant can be used with safety, or
(b) to carry out such test in such manner as may be specified in the
order, and to inform the Inspector of the results thereof.
40. Safety of buildings and machinery.- (1) If it appears to the Inspector
that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways, machinery or
plant in a factory is in such a condition that it is dangerous to human life or
safety, he may serve on 4[the occupier or manager or both] of the factory an order
in writing specifying the measures which in his opinion should be adopted and
requiring them to be carried out before a specified date.
(2) If it appears to the Inspector that the use of any building or part of a
building or any part of the ways, machinery or plant in a factory involves
imminent danger to human life or safety, he may serve on 5[the occupier or

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Subs. by Act. 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. for “the manager” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Subs. for “the manager” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
5 Subs. for “the manager” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
26 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 40A
manager or both] of the factory an order in writing prohibiting its use until it has
been properly repaired or altered.
1[40A. Maintenance of buildings.- If it appears to the Inspector that any
building or part of a building in a factory is in such a state of disrepair as is likely
to lead to conditions detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers, he may
serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order in writing
specifying the measures which in his opinion should be taken and requiring the
same to be carried out before such date as is specified in the order.
40B. Safety Officers.- (1) In every factory,-
(i) wherein one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed,
or
(ii) wherein, in the opinion of the State Government, any
manufacturing process or operation is carried on, which process
or operation involves any risk of bodily injury, poisoning or
disease, or any other hazard to health, to the persons employed
in the factory,
the occupier shall, if so required by the State Government by notification in the
Official Gazette, employ such number of Safety Officers as may be specified in
that notification.
(2) The duties, qualifications and conditions of service of Safety Officers shall
be such as may be prescribed by the State Government.]
41. Power to make rule to supplement this Chapter.- The 2[State]
Government may make rules requiring the provision in any factory or in any
class or description of factories of such further 3[devices and measures] for
securing the safety of persons employed therein as it may deem necessary.
4[CHAPTER IV-A
PROVISIONS RELATING TO HAZARDOUS PROCESSES
41A. Constitution of Site Appraisal Committees.- (1) The State
Government may, for purposes of advising it to consider applications for grant of
permission for the initial location of a factory involving a hazardous process or for
the expansion of any such factory, appoint a Site Appraisal Committee consisting
of-
(a) the Chief Inspector of the State who shall be its Chairman,
(b) a representative of the Central Board for the Prevention and
Control of Water Pollution appointed by the Central Government
under Section 3 of the Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974);
(c) a representative of the Central Board for the Prevention and
Control of Air Pollution referred to in section 3 of the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981(14 of 1981);
(d) a representative of the State Board appointed under section 4 of
the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of
1974);

1 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
3 Subs. for devices by the Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
4 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987) except 41- F which became effective from
(w.e.f. 1.6.1988)
Sec. 41B The Factories Act, 1948 27
(e) a representative of the State Board for the Prevention and
Control of Air Pollution referred to in section 5 of the Air
(Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981);
(f) a representative of the Department of Environment in the State;
(g) a representative of the Meteorological Department of the
Government of India;
(h) an expert in the field of occupational health; and
(i) a representative of the Town Planning Department of the State
Government, and not more than five other members who may be
co-opted by the State Government who shall be-
(i) a scientist having specialised knowledge of the
hazardous process which will be involved in the factory,
(ii) a representative of the local authority within whose
jurisdiction the factory is to be established, and
(iii) not more than three other persons as deemed fit by the
State Government.
(2) The Site Appraisal Committee shall examine an application for the
establishment of a factory involving hazardous process and make its
recommendation to the State Government within a period of ninety days of the
receipt of such application in the prescribed form.
(3) Where any process relates to a factory owned or controlled by the Central
Government or to a corporation or a company owned or controlled by the Central
Government, the State Government shall co-opt in the Site Appraisal Committee
a representative nominated by the Central Government as a member of that
Committee.
(4) The Site Appraisal Committee shall have power to call for any
information from the person making an application for the establishment or
expansion of a factory involving a hazardous process.
(5) Where the State Government has granted approval to an application for
the establishment or expansion of a factory involving hazardous process, it shall
not be necessary for an applicant to obtain a further approval from the Central
Board or the State Board established under the Water (Prevention and Control of
Pollution) Act, 1974 (6 of 1974), and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act, 1981 (14 of 1981).
41B. Compulsory disclosure of information by the occupier.- (1) The
occupier of every factory involving a hazardous process shall disclose in the
manner prescribed all information regarding dangers, including health hazards
and the measures to overcome such hazards arising from the exposure to or
handling of the materials or substances in the manufacture, transportation,
storage and other processes, to the workers employed in the factory, the Chief
Inspector, the local authority within whose jurisdiction the factory is situate and
the general public in the vicinity.
(2) The occupier shall, at the time of registering the factory involving a
hazardous process, lay down a detailed policy with respect of the health and
safety of the workers employed therein and intimate such policy to the Chief
Inspector and the local authority and, thereafter, at such intervals as may be
prescribed, inform the Chief Inspector and the local authority of any change
made in the said policy.
(3) The information furnished under sub-section (1) shall include accurate
information as to the quantity, specifications and other characteristics of wastes
and the manner of their disposal.
28 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 41C
(4) Every occupier shall, with the approval of the Chief Inspector, draw up
an on site emergency plan and detailed disaster control measures for his factory
and make known to the workers employed therein and to the general public
living in the vicinity of the factory the safety measures required to be taken in the
event of an accident taking place.
(5) Every occupier of a factory shall,-
(a) if such factory engaged in a hazardous process on the
commencement of the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987, within
a period of thirty days of such commencement; and
(b) if such factory proposes to engage in a hazardous process at any
time after such commencement, within a period of thirty days
before the commencement of such process,
inform the Chief Inspector of the nature and details of the process in such form
and in such manner as may be prescribed.
(6) Where any occupier of a factory contravenes the provisions of sub-section
(5), the licence issued under section 6 to such factory shall, notwithstanding any
penalty to which the occupier of factory shall be subjected to under the
provisions of this Act, be liable for cancellation.
(7) The occupier of a factory involving a hazardous process shall, with the
previous approval of the Chief Inspector, lay down measures for the handling,
usage, transportation and storage of hazardous substances inside the factory
premises and the disposal of such substances outside the factory premises and
publicise them in the manner prescribed among the workers and the general
public living in the vicinity.
41C. Specific responsibility of the occupier in relation to hazardous
processes.- Every occupier of a factory involving any hazardous process shall-
(a) maintain accurate and up-to-date health records or, as the case
may be, medical records, of the workers in the factory who are
exposed to any chemical, toxic or any other harmful substances
which are manufactured, stored, handled or transported and
such records shall be accessible to the workers subject to such
conditions as may be prescribed;
(b) appoint persons who possess qualifications and experience in
handling hazardous substances and are competent to supervise
such handling within the factory and to provide at the working
place all the necessary facilities for protecting the workers in the
manner prescribed:
Provided that where any question arises as to the qualifications and
experience of a person so appointed, the decision of the Chief Inspector shall be
final;
(c) provide for medical examination of every worker-
(i) before such worker is assigned to a job involving the
handling of, or working with, a hazardous substance,
and
(ii) while continuing in such job, and after he has ceased to
work in such job, a interval not exceeding twelve
months, in such manner as may be prescribed.
41D. Power of Central Government to appoint Inquiry Committee.- (1)
The Central Government may, in the event of the occurrence of an extraordinary
situation involving a factory engaged in a hazardous process, appoint an Inquiry
Committee to inquire into the standards of health and safety observed in the
Sec. 41H The Factories Act, 1948 29
factory with a view to finding out the causes of any failure or neglect in the
adoption of any measures or standards prescribed for the health and safety of the
workers employed in the factory or the general public affected, or likely to be
affected, due to such failure or neglect and for the prevention and recurrence of
such extraordinary situations in future in such factory or elsewhere.
(2) The Committee appointed under sub-section (1) shall consist of a
Chairman and two other members and the terms of reference of the Committee
and the tenure of office of its members shall be such as may be determined by
the Central Government according to the requirements of the situation.
(3) The recommendations of the Committee shall be advisory in nature.
41E. Emergency standards.- (1) Where the Central Government is satisfied
that no standards of safety have been prescribed in respect of a hazardous
process or class of hazardous processes, or where the standards so prescribed
are inadequate, it may direct the Director-General of Factory Advice Service and
Labour Institutes or any institution specialised in matters relating to standards
of safety in hazardous processes, to lay down emergency standards for
enforcement of suitable standards in respect of such hazardous processes.
(2) The emergency standards laid down under sub-section (1) shall, until
they are incorporated in the rules made under this Act, be enforceable and have
the same effect as if they had been incorporated in the rules made under this
Act.
41F. Permissible limits of exposure of chemical and toxic substances.-
(1) The maximum permissible threshold limits of exposure of chemical and toxic
substances in manufacturing processes (whether hazardous or otherwise) in any
factory shall be of the value indicated in the Second Schedule.
(2) The Central Government may, at any time, for the purpose of giving effect
to any scientific proof obtained from specialised institutions or experts in the
field, by notification in the Official Gazette, make suitable changes in the said
Schedule.
41G. Workers’ participation in safety management.- (1) The occupier
shall, in every factory where a hazardous process takes place, or where
hazardous substances are used or handled, set up a Safety Committee consisting
of equal number of representatives of workers and management to promote cooperation
between the workers and the management in maintaining proper safety
and health at work and to review periodically the measures taken in that behalf:
Provided that the State Government may, by order in writing and for reasons
to be recorded, exempt the occupier of any factory or class of factories from
setting up such Committee.
(2) The composition of the Safety Committee, the tenure of office of its
members and their rights and duties shall be such as may be prescribed.
41H. Right of workers to warn about imminent danger.- (1) Where the
workers employed in any factory engaged in a hazardous process have
reasonable apprehension that there is a likelihood of imminent danger to their
lives or health due to any accident, they may bring the same to the notice of the
occupier, agent, manager or any other person who is in charge of the factory or
the process concerned directly or through their representatives in the Safety
Committee and simultaneously bring the same to the notice of the Inspector.
(2) It shall be the duty of such occupier, agent, manager or the person
incharge of the factory or process to take immediate remedial action if he is
30 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 42
satisfied about the existence of such imminent danger and send a report
forthwith of the action taken to the nearest Inspector.
(3) If the occupier, agent, manager or the person in charge referred to in
sub-section (2) is not satisfied about the existence of any imminent danger as
apprehended by the workers, he shall, nevertheless, refer the matter forthwith to
the nearest Inspector whose decision on the question of the existence of such
imminent danger shall be final.
CHAPTER V
WELFARE
42. Washing facilities.- (1) In every factory-
(a) adequate and suitable facilities for washing shall be provided
and maintained for the use of the workers therein;
(b) separate and adequately screened facilities shall be provided for
the use of male and female workers;
(c) such facilities shall be conveniently accessible and shall be kept
clean.
(2) The 1[State] Government may, in respect of any factory or class or
description of factories or of any manufacturing process, prescribe standards of
adequate and suitable facilities for washing.
43. Facilities for storing and drying of wet clothing.- The State
Government may in respect of any factory or class or description of factories,
make rules requiring the provision therein of suitable places for keeping clothing
not worn during working hours and for the drying of wet clothing.
44. Facilities for sitting.- (1) In every factory suitable arrangements for
sitting shall be provided and maintained for all workers obliged to work in a
standing position, in order that they may take advantage of any opportunities for
rest which may occur in the course of their work.
(2) If, in the opinion of the Chief Inspector, the workers in any factory
engaged in a particular manufacturing process or working in a particular room
are able to do their work efficiently in a sitting position, he may, by order in
writing, require the occupier of the factory to provide before a specified date such
seating arrangements as may be practicable for all workers so engaged or
working.
(3) The 2[State] Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
declare that the provisions of sub-section (1) shall not apply to any specified
factory or class or description of factories or to any specified manufacturing
process.
45. First aid appliances.- (1) There shall in every factory be provided and
maintained so as to be readily accessible during all working hours first-aid boxes
or cupboards equipped with the prescribed contents, and the number of such
boxes or cupboard to be provided and maintained shall not be less than one for
every one hundred and fifty workers ordinarily employed 3[at any one time] in the
factory.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
3 Ins. by Act 25 of 1954.
Sec. 47 The Factories Act, 1948 31
1[(2) Nothing except the prescribed contents shall be kept in a first-aid box
or cupboard.
(3) Each first-aid box or cupboard shall be kept in the charge of a separate
responsible person 2[who holds a certificate in first-aid treatment recognised by
State Government] and who shall always be readily available during the working
hours of the factory.]
3[(4) In every factory wherein more than five hundred workers are
4[ordinarily employed] there shall be provided and maintained an ambulance
room of the prescribed size, containing the prescribed equipment and in the
charge of such medical and nursing staff as may be prescribed 5[and those
facilities shall always be made readily available during the working hours of the
factory.]
46. Canteens.- (1) The 6[State] Government may make rules requiring that
in any specified factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are
ordinarily employed, a canteen or canteens shall be provided and maintained by
the occupier for the use of the workers.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules
may provide for-
(a) the date by which such canteen shall be provided;
(b) the standards in respect of construction, accommodation,
furniture and other equipment of the canteen;
(c) the foodstuffs to be served therein and the charges which may be
made therefor;
(d) the constitution of a managing committee for the canteen and
representation of the workers in the management of the canteen;
(dd) 7[the items of expenditure in the running of the canteen which
are not to be taken into account in fixing the cost of foodstuffs
and which shall be borne by the employer;]
(e) the delegation to the Chief Inspector, subject to such conditions
as may be prescribed, of the power to make rules under clause
(c).
47. Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms.- (1) In every factory, wherein
more than one hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed, adequate and
suitable shelters or rest rooms and a suitable lunch room, with provision for
drinking water, where workers can eat meals brought by them, shall be provided
and maintained for the use of the workers:
Provided that any canteen maintained in accordance with the provisions of
section 46 shall be regarded as part of the requirements of this sub-section:
Provided further that where a lunch room exists no worker shall eat any
food in the workroom.

1 Sub-secs.(2) and (3) subs. for the original sub-sec.(2) by Act 25 of 1954.
2 Subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
3 Original sub-sec.(3) renumbered as sub-sec.(4) by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
4 Subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
5 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
6 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 17950
7 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
32 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 48
(2) The shelters or rest rooms or lunch rooms to be provided under subsection
(1) shall be sufficiently lighted and ventilated and shall be maintained in
a cool and clean condition.
(3) The 1[State] Government may-
(a) prescribe the standards in respect of construction,
accommodation, furniture and other equipment of shelters, rest
rooms and lunch rooms to be provided, under this section;
(b) by notification in the Official Gazette, exempt any factory or class
or description of factories from the requirements of this section.
48. Crèches.- (1) In every factory wherein more than 2[thirty women
workers] are ordinarily employed there shall be provided and maintained a
suitable room or rooms for the use of children under the age of six years of such
women.
(2) Such rooms shall provide adequate accommodation, shall be adequately
lighted and ventilated, shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition and
shall be under the charge of women trained in the care of children and infants.
(3) The 3[State] Government may make rules-
(a) prescribing the location and the standards in respect of
construction, accommodation, furniture and other equipment of
rooms to be provided under this section;
(b) requiring the provision in factories to which this section applies
of additional facilities for the care of children belonging to women
workers, including suitable provision of facilities for washing and
changing their clothing;
(c) requiring the provision in any factory of free milk or refreshment
or both for such children;
(d) requiring that facilities shall be given in any factory for the
mothers of such children to feed them at the necessary intervals.
49. Welfare officers.- (1) In every factory wherein five hundred or more
workers are ordinarily employed the occupier shall employ in the factory such
number of welfare officers as may be prescribed.
(2) The 4[State] Government may prescribe the duties, qualifications and
conditions of service of officers employed under sub-section (1).
50. Power to make rules to supplement this Chapter.- The 5[State]
Government may make rules-
(a) exempting, subject to compliance with such alternative
arrangement for the welfare of workers as may be prescribed,
any factory or class or description of factories from compliance
with any of the provisions of this Chapter;
(b) requiring in any factory or class or description of factories that
representatives of the workers employed in the factory shall be
associated with the management of the welfare arrangements of
the workers.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Subs. for “Fifty women workers” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
Sec. 55 The Factories Act, 1948 33
CHAPTER VI
WORKING HOURS OF ADULTS
51. Weekly hours.- No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in
a factory for more than forty-eight hours in any week.
52. Weekly holidays.- (1) No adult worker shall be required or allowed to
work in a factory on the first day of the week (hereinafter referred to as the said
day), unless-
(a) he has or will have a holiday for a whole day on one of the three
days immediately before or after the said day, and
(b) the manager of the factory has, before the said day or the
substituted day under clause (a), whichever is earlier,-
(i) delivered a notice at the office of the Inspector of his
intention to require the worker to work on the said day
and of the day which is to be substituted, and
(ii) displayed a notice to that effect in the factory:
Provided that no substitution shall be made which will result in any worker
working for more than ten days consecutively without a holiday for a whole day.
(2) Notices given under sub-section (1) may be cancelled by a notice
delivered at the office of the Inspector and a notice displayed in the factory not
later than the day before the said day or the holiday to be cancelled, whichever is
earlier.
(3) Where, in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1), any worker
works on the said day and has had a holiday on one of the three days
immediately
before it, that said day shall, for the purpose of calculating his weekly hours of
work, be included in the preceding week.
53. Compensatory holidays.- (1) Where, as a result of the passing of an
order or the making of a rule under the provisions of this Act exempting a factory
or the workers therein from the provisions of section 52, a worker is deprived of
any of the weekly holidays for which provision is made in sub-section (1) of that
section, he shall be allowed, within the month in which the holidays were due to
him or within the two months immediately following that month, compensatory
holidays of equal number to the holidays so lost.
(2) The State Government may prescribe the manner in which the holidays
for which provision is made in sub-section (1) shall be allowed.
54. Daily hours.- Subject to the provisions of section 51, no adult worker
shall be required or allowed to work in a factory for more than nine hours in any
day:
1[Provided that, subject to the previous approval of the Chief Inspector, the
daily maximum hours specified in this section may be exceeded in order to
facilitate the change of shifts.]
55. Intervals for rest.-
2[(1) 3[The periods of work] of adult workers in a
factory each day shall be so fixed that no period shall exceed five hours and that
no worker shall work for more than five hours before he has had an interval for
rest of at half an hour.

1 Proviso added by Act 25 of 1954.
2 S.55 renumbered as sub-sec.(1) by Act 25 of 1954.
3 Subs. for “The period” by Act 40 of 1949
34 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 56
1[(2) The State Government or, subject to the control of the State
Government, the Chief Inspector, may, by written order and for the reasons
specified therein, exempt any factory from the provisions of sub- section (1) so
however that the total number of hours worked by a worker without an interval
does not exceed six.]
56. Spread over.- The periods of work of an adult worker in a factory shall
be so arranged that inclusive of his intervals for rest under section 55, they shall
not spread over more than ten and a half hours in any day:
Provided that the Chief Inspector may, for reasons to be specified in writing,
increase the 2[spread over upto twelve hours.]
57. Night shifts.- Where a worker in a factory works on a shift which
extends beyond midnight-
(a) for the purposes of sections 52 and 53, a holiday for a whole day
shall mean in his case a period of twenty-four consecutive hours
beginning when his shift ends;
(b) the following day for him shall be deemed to be the period of
twenty-four hours beginning when such shift ends, and the
hours he has worked after midnight shall be counted in the
previous day.
58. Prohibition of overlapping shifts.- (1) Work shall not be carried on in
any factory by means of a system of shifts so arranged that emore than one relay
of workers is engaged in work of the same kind at the same time.
3[(2) The State Government or, subject to the control of the State
Government, the Chief Inspector, may, by written order and for the reasons
specified therein, exempt on such conditions as may be deemed expedient, any
factory or class or description of factories or any department or section of a
factory or any category or description of workers therein from the provisions of
sub-section (1).]
59. Extra wages for overtime.- (1) Where a worker works in a factory for
more than nine hours in any day or for more than forty-eight hours in any week,
he shall, in respect to overtime work, be entitled to wages at the rate of twice his
ordinary rate of wages.
4[(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), “ordinary rate of wages” means the
basic wages plus such allowances, including the cash equivalent of the
advantage accruing through the concessional sale to workers of foodgrains and
other articles, as the worker is for the time being entitled to, but does not include
a bonus and wages for overtime work.
(3) Where any workers in a factory are paid on a piece-rate basis, the time
rate shall be deemed to be equivalent to the daily average of their full-time
earnings for the days on which they actually worked on the same or identical job
during the month immediately preceding the calendar month during which the
overtime work was done, and such time rates shall be deemed to be the ordinary
rates of wages of those workers.

1 Sub-sec.(2) of S.55 added by Act 25 of 1954.
2 Subs. by Act 25 of 1954.
3 Subs. by Act 25 of 1954.
4 Subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
Sec. 61 The Factories Act, 1948 35
Provided that in the case of a worker who has not worked in the immediately
preceding calendar month on the same or identical job, the time rate shall be
deemed to be equivalent to the daily average of the earning of the worker for the
days on which he actually worked in the week in which the overtime work was
done.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section, in computing the earnings
for the days on which the worker actually worked such allowances, including the
cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through the concessional sale to
workers of foodgrains and other articles, as the worker is for the time being
entitled to, shall be included but any bonus or wages for overtime work payable
in relation to the period with reference to which the earnings are being computed
shall be excluded.]
1[(4) The cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through the
concessional sale to a worker of foodgrains and other articles shall be computed
as often as may be prescribed on the basis of the maximum quantity of
foodgrains and other articles admissible to a standard family.
Explanation 1.-”Standard family” means a family consisting of the worker,
his or her spouse and two children below the age of fourteen years requiring in
all three adult consumption units.
Explanation 2.-”Adult consumption unit” means the consumption unit of a
male above the age of fourteen years; and the consumption unit of a female above
the age of fourteen years and that of a child below the age of fourteen years shall
be calculated at the rates of 0.8 and 0.6 respectively of one adult consumption
unit.
(5) The State Government may make rules prescribing-
(a) the manner in which the cash equivalent of the advantage
accruing through the concessional sale to a worker of foodgrains
and other articles shall be computed; and
(b) the registers that shall be maintained in a factory for the
purpose of securing compliance with the provisions of this
section.]
60. Restriction on double employment.- No adult worker shall be required
or allowed to work in any factory on any day on which he has already been
working in any other factory, save in such circumstances as may be prescribed.
61. Notice of periods of work for adults.- (1) There shall be displayed and
correctly maintained in every factory in accordance with the provisions of subsection
(2) of section 108, a notice of periods of work for adults, showing clearly
for every day the periods during which adult workers may be required to work.
(2) The periods shown in the notice required by sub-section (1) shall be fixed
beforehand in accordance with the following provisions of this section, and shall
be such that workers working for those periods would not be working in
contravention of any of the provisions of sections 51, 52, 54 2[55, 56 and 58].
(3) Where all the adult workers in a factory are required to work during the
same periods, the manager of the factory shall fix those period for such workers
generally.
(4) Where all the adult workers in a factory are not required to work during
the same periods, the manager of the factory shall classify them into groups

1 Sub-sec.(4) and (5) subs. for the original sub-sec.(4) by Act 25 of 1954
2 Subs. for “55 and 56” by Act 25 of 1954.
36 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 62
according to the nature of their work indicating the number of workers in each
group.
(5) For each group which is not required to work on a system of shifts, the
manager of the factory shall fix the period during which the group may be
required to work.
(6) Where any group is required to work on a system of shifts and the relays
are not to be subject to predetermined periodical changes of shifts, the manager
of the factory shall fix the periods during which each relay of the group may be
required to work.
(7) Where any group is to work on a system of shifts and the relays are to be
subject to predetermined periodical changes of shifts, the manager of the factory
shall draw up a scheme of shifts where under the periods during which any relay
of the group may be required to work and the relay which will be working at any
time of the day shall be known for any day.
(8) The 1[State] Government may prescribe forms of the notice required by
sub-section (1) and the manner in which it shall be maintained.
(9) In the case of a factory beginning work after the commencement of this
Act, a copy of the notice referred to in sub-section (1) shall be sent in duplicate to
the Inspector before the day on which work is begun in the factory.
(10) Any proposed change in the system of work in any factory which will
necessitate a change in the notice referred to in sub- section (1) shall be notified
to the inspector in duplicate before the change is made, and except with the
previous sanction of the Inspector, no such change shall be made until one week
has elapsed since the last change.
62. Register of adult workers.- (1) The manager of every factory shall
maintain a register of adult workers, to be available to the Inspector at all times
during working hours, or when any work is being carried on in the factory,
showing-
(a) the name of each adult worker in the factory;
(b) the nature of his work;
(c) the group, if any, in which he is included;
(d) where his group works on shifts, the relay to which he is allotted;
and
(e) such other particulars as may be prescribed:
Provided that, if the Inspector is of opinion that any muster roll or register
maintained as a part of the routine of a factory gives in respect of any or all the
workers in the factory the particulars required under this section, he may, by
order in writing direct that such muster roll or register shall to the corresponding
extent be maintained in place of, and be treated as, the register of adult workers
in that factory.
2[(1A) No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in any factory
unless his name and other particulars have been entered in the register of adult
workers.]
(2) The 3[State] Government may prescribe the form of the register of adult
workers, the manner in which it shall be maintained and the period for which it
shall be preserved.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
Sec. 64 The Factories Act, 1948 37
63. Hours of work to correspond with notice under section 61 and
register under section 62.- No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work
in any factory otherwise than in accordance with the notice of periods of work for
adults displayed in the factory and the entries made before hand against his
name in the register of adult workers of the factory.
64. Power to make exempting rules.- (1) The 1[State] Government may
make rules defining the persons who holds positions of supervisions or
management or are employed in a confidential position in a factory, 2[or
empowering the Chief Inspector to declare any person, other than a person
defined by such rules, as a person holding position of supervision or
management or employed in a confidential position in a factory if, in the opinion
of the Chief Inspector, such persons holds such position or is so employed] and
the provisions of this Chapter, other than the provisions of clause (b) of subsection
(1) of section 66 and of the proviso to that sub-section, shall not apply to
any person so defined 3[or declared]:
4[Provided that any person so defined or declared shall, where the ordinary
rate of wages of such person 5[does not exceed the wage limit specified in subsection
(6) of section 1 of the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 (4 of 1936), as
amended from time to time], be entitled to extra wages in respect of overtime
work under section 59].
(2) The 6[State] Government may make rules in respect of adult workers in
factories providing for the exemption, to such extend and subject to such
conditions as may be prescribed-
(a) of workers engaged on urgent repairs, from the provisions of
sections 51, 52, 54, 55 and 56;
(b) of workers engaged in work in the nature of preparatory or
complimentary work which must necessarily be carried on
outside the limits laid down for the general working of the
factory, from the provisions of sections 51, 54, 55 and 56;
(c) of workers engaged in work which is necessarily so intermittent
that the intervals during which they do not work while on duty
ordinarily amount to more than the intervals for rest required by
or under section 55, from the provisions of sections 51, 54, 55
and 56;
(d) of workers engaged in any work which for technical reasons
must be carried on continuously 7[***] from the provisions of
sections 51, 52, 54, 55 and 56;
(e) of workers engaged in making or supplying articles of prime
necessity which must be made or supplied every day, from the
provisions of 8[Section 51 and section 52];

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
3 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
5 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987.)
6 Subs. for “Provincial” by Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
7 The words “throughout the day” omitted by Act 25 of 1954.
8 Subs. for “section 52” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
38 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 64
(f) of workers engaged in a manufacturing process which cannot be
carried on except during fixed seasons, from the provisions of
1[Section 51, section 52 and section 54];
(g) of workers engaged in a manufacturing process which cannot be
carried on except at times dependent on the irregular action of
natural forces, from the provisions of Sections 52 and 55;
(h) of workers engaged in a engine-rooms or boiler-houses or in
attending to power-plant or transmission machinery, from the
provisions of 2[section 51 and Section 52];
3[(i) of workers engaged in the printing of newspapers, who are held
up on account of the break down of machinery, from the
provisions of sections 51, 54 and 56];
Explanation.-In this clause the expression “newspapers” has the meaning
assigned to it in the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 (25 of 1867);
(j) of workers engaged in the loading or unloading of railway wagons
4[or lorries or trucks] from the provisions of sections 51, 52, 54,
55 and 56;
5[(k) of workers engaged in any work, which is notified by the State
Government in the Official Gazette as a work of national
importance, from the provisions of section 51, section 52, section
54, section 55 and section 56].
(3) Rules made under sub-section (2) providing for any exemption may also
provide for any consequential exemption from the provisions of Section 61 which
the 6[State] Government may deem to be expedient, subject to such conditions as
as it may prescribe.
7[(4) In making rules under this section, the State Government shall not
exceed, except in respect of exemption under clause (a) of sub-section (2), the
following limits of work inclusive of overtime:-
(i) the total number of hours of work in any day shall not exceed
ten;
(ii) the spread over, inclusive of intervals for rest, shall not exceed
twelve hours in any one day:
Provided that the State Government may, in respect of any or all of the
categories of workers referred to in clause (d) of sub- section (2), make rules
prescribing the circumstances in which, and the conditions subject to which, the
restrictions imposed by clause (i) and clause (ii) shall not apply in order to enable
a shift worker to work the whole or part of a subsequent shift in the absence of a
worker who has failed to report for duty;
8[(iii) the total number of hours of work in a week, including overtime,
shall not exceed sixty];
1[(iv) the total number of hours of overtime shall not exceed fifty for
any one quarter.

1 Subs. for “section 52” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
2 Subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
3 Cl.(i) and (j) added by Act 25 of 1954
4 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
5 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
6 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
7 Sub-sec.(4) subs. by Act 25 of 1954
8 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
Sec. 66 The Factories Act, 1948 39
Explanation.-”Quarter” means a period of three consecutive months
beginning on the 1st of January, the 1st of April, the 1st of July or the 1st of
October.]
(5) Rules made under this section shall remain in force for not more than
2[five years.]
65. Power to make exempting orders.- (1) Where the 3[State] Government
is satisfied that, owing to the nature of the work carried on or to other
circumstances, it is unreasonable to require that the periods of work of any adult
workers in any factory or class or description of factories should be fixed beforehand,
it may, by written order, relax or modify the provisions of section 61 in
respect of such workers therein, to such extent and in such manner as it may
think fit, and subject to such conditions as it may deem expedient to ensure
control over periods of work.
(2) The 4[State] Government or, subject to the control of the 5[State]
Government, the Chief Inspector, may by written order exempt, on such
conditions as it or he may deem expedient, any or all of the adult workers, in any
factory or group or class or description of factories from any or all of the
provisions of sections 51, 52, 54 and 56 on the ground that the exemption is
required to enable the factory or factories to deal with an exceptional press of
work.
6[(3) Any exemption granted under sub-section (2) shall be subject to the
following conditions, namely:-
(i) the total number of hours of work in any day shall not exceed
twelve;
(ii) the spread over, inclusive of intervals for rest, shall not exceed
thirteen hours in any one day;
(iii) the total number of hours of work in any week, including
overtime, shall not exceed sixty;
(iv) no worker shall be allowed to work overtime, for more than seven
days at a stretch and the total number of hours of overtime work
in any quarter shall not exceed seventy-five.
Explanation.-In this sub-section “quarter” has the same meaning as in subsection
(4) of section 64.]
(4) 7[***]
66. Further restrictions on employment of women.- (1) The provisions of
this Chapter shall, in their application to women in factories, be supplemented
by the following further restrictions, namely:-
(a) no exemption from the provisions of section 54 may be granted
in respect of any woman;
(b) no woman shall be 8[required or allowed to work in any factory]
except between the hours of 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.

1 Cl.(iii) re numbered as Cl.(iv) by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Subs. for “three years” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
6 Subs. by Act 25 of 1954
7 Sub-sec.(4) omitted by Act 25 of 1954 (w.e.f. 26-10-1976).
8 Subs. for “employed in any factory” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
40 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 67
Provided that the 1[State] Government may, by notification in the Official
Gazette in respect of 2[any factory or group or class or description of factories],
vary the limits laid down in clause (b), but so that no such variation shall
authorise the employment of any woman between the hours of 10 p.m. and 5
a.m.;
3[(c) there shall be no change of shifts except after a weekly holiday or
any other holiday.]
(2) The 4[State] Government may make rules providing for the exemption
from the restrictions set out in sub-section (1), to such extent and subject to
such conditions as it may prescribe, of women working in fish curing or fish
canning factories, where the employment of women beyond the hours specified in
the said restrictions is necessary to prevent damage to, or deterioration in, any
raw material.
(3) The rules made under sub-section (2) shall remain in force for not more
than three years at a time.
CHAPTER VII
EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS
67. Prohibition of employment of young children.-No child who has not
completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory.
68. Non-adult workers to carry tokens.- A child who has completed his
fourteenth year or an adolescent shall not be required or allowed to work in any
factory unless-
(a) a certificate of fitness granted with reference to him under
section 69 is in the custody of the manager of the factory, and
(b) such child or adolescent carries while he is at work a token
giving a reference to such certificate.
69. Certificates of fitness.- (1) A certifying surgeon shall, on the
application of any young person or his parent or guardian accompanied by a
document signed by a manager of a factory that such person will be employed
therein if certified to be fit for work in a factory, or on the application of the
manager of the factory in which any young person wishes to work, examine such
person and ascertain his fitness for work in a factory.
(2) The certifying surgeon, after examination, may grant to such young
person, in the prescribed form, or may renew-
(a) a certificate of fitness to work in a factory as a child, if he is
satisfied that the young person has completed his fourteenth
year, that he has attained the prescribed physical standards and
that he is fit for such work;
(b) a certificate of fitness to work in a factory as an adult, if he is
satisfied that the young person has completed his fifteenth year,
and is fit for full day’s work in a factory:
Provided that unless the certifying surgeon has personal knowledge of the
place where the young person proposes to work and of the manufacturing

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Subs. for “any class or description of factories” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
3 Cl.(c) ins. by Act 25 of 1954
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
Sec. 71 The Factories Act, 1948 41
process in which he will be employed, he shall not grant or renew a certificate
under this sub-section until he has examined such place.
(3) A certificate of fitness granted or renewed under sub-section (2)-
(a) shall be valid only for a period of twelve months from the date
thereof;
(b) may be made subject to conditions in regard to the nature of the
work in which the young person may be employed, or requiring
re-examination of the young person before the expiry of the
period of twelve months.
(4) A certifying surgeon shall revoke any certificate granted or renewed
under sub-section (2) if in his opinion the holder of it is no longer fit to work in
the capacity stated therein in a factory.
(5) Where a certifying surgeon refuses to grant or renew a certificate or a
certificate of the kind requested or revokes a certificate, he shall, if so requested
by any person who could have applied for the certificate, or the renewal thereof,
state his reasons in writing for so doing.
(6) Where a certificate under this section, with reference to any young
person is granted or renewed subject to such conditions as are referred to in
clause (b) of sub-section (3), the young person shall not be required or allowed to
work in any factory except in accordance with those conditions.
(7) Any fee payable for a certificate under this section shall be paid by the
occupier and shall not be recoverable from the young person, his parents or
guardian.
70. Effect of certificate of fitness granted to adolescent.- (1) An
adolescent who has been granted a certificate of fitness to work in a factory as an
adult under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 69 and who while at work in a
factory carries a token giving reference to the certificate, shall be deemed to be an
adult for all the purposes of Chapters VI and VII;
1[***]
2[(1A) No female adolescent or male adolescent who has attained the age of
seventeen years but who has been granted a certificate of fitness to work in a
factory as an adult, shall be required or allowed to work in any factory except
between 6 a.m. and 7 p.m.:
Provided that the State Government may, by notification in the Official
Gazette, in respect of any factory or group or class or description of factories,-
(i) vary the limits laid down in this sub-section so, however, that no
such section shall authorise the employment of any female
adolescent between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.;
(ii) grant exemption from the provisions of this sub- section in case
of serious emergency where national interest is involved.
(2) An adolescent who has not been granted a certificate of fitness to work in
a factory as an adult under the aforesaid clause (b) shall, notwithstanding his
age, be deemed to be a child for all the purposes of this Act.
71. Working hours for children.- (1) No child shall be employed or
permitted to work, in any factory-
(a) for more than four and a half hours in any day;

1 Omitted by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
42 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 72
1[(b) during the night.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section “night” shall mean a
period of at least twelve consecutive hours which shall include the interval
between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.]
(2) The period of work of all children employed in a factory shall be limited to
two shifts which shall not overlap or spread over more than five hours each; and
each child shall be employed in only one of the relays which shall not except with
the previous permission in writing of the Chief Inspector, be changed more
frequently than once in a period of thirty days.
(3) The provisions of section 52 shall apply also to child workers, and no
exemption from the provisions of that section may be granted in respect of any
child.
(4) No child shall be required or allowed to work in any factory on any day
on which he has already been working in another factory.
2[(5) No female child shall be required or allowed to work in any factory
except between 8 a.m. and 7 p.m.]
72. Notice of periods of work for children.- (1) There shall be displayed
and correctly maintained in every factory in which children are employed in
accordance with the provisions of sub- section (2) of section 108 a notice of
periods of work for children, showing clearly for every day the periods during
which children may be required or allowed to work.
(2) The periods shown in the notice required by sub-section (1) shall be fixed
beforehand in accordance with the methods laid down for adult workers in
section 61, and shall be such that children working for those periods would not
be in contravention of the provisions of section 71.
(3) The provisions of sub-sections (8), (9) and (10) of section 61 shall apply
also to the notice required by sub-section (1) of this section.
73. Register of child workers.- (1) The manager of every factory in which
children are employed shall maintain a register of child workers, to be available
to the Inspector at all times during working hours or when any work is being
carried on in a factory showing-
(a) the name of each child worker in the factory,
(b) the nature of his work,
(c) the group, if any, in which he is included,
(d) where his group works on shifts, the relay to which he is allotted,
and
(e) the number of his certificate of fitness granted under section 69.
3[(1A) No child worker shall be required or allowed to work in any factory
unless his name and other particulars have been entered in the register of child
workers.]
(2) The 4[State] Government may prescribe the form of the register of child
workers, manner in which it shall be maintained and the period for which it shall
be preserved.

1 Subs. by Act 25 of 1954
2 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
Sec. 78 The Factories Act, 1948 43
74. Hours of work to correspond with notice under section 72 and
register under section 73.- No child shall be employed in any factory otherwise
than in accordance with the notice of periods of work of children displayed in the
factory and the entries made before hand against his name in the register of child
workers of the factory.
75. Power to require medical examination.- Where an Inspector is of the
opinion-
(a) that any person working in a factory without a certificate of
fitness is a young person, or
(b) that a young person working in a factory with a certificate of
fitness is no longer fit to work in the capacity stated therein,-
he may serve on the manager of the factory a notice requiring that such person
or young person, as the case may be, shall be, examined by a certifying surgeon,
and such person or young person shall not, if the Inspector so directs, be
employed, or permitted to work, in any factory until he has been so examined
and has been granted a certificate of fitness or a fresh certificate of fitness, as the
case may be, under section 69, or has been certified by the certifying surgeon
examining him not to be a young person.
76. Power to make rules.- The 1[State] Government may make rules-
(a) prescribing the forms of certificate of fitness to be granted under
section 69, providing for the grant of duplicates in the event of
loss of the original certificates, and fixing the fees which may be
charged for such certificates and renewals thereof and such
duplicates;
(b) prescribing the physical standards to be attained by children
and adolescents working in factories;
(c) regulating the procedure of certifying surgeons under this
Chapter;
(d) specifying other duties which certifying surgeons may be
required to perform in connection with the employment of young
persons in factories and fixing the fees which may be charged for
such duties and the persons by whom they shall be payable.
77. Certain other provisions of law not barred.-The provisions of this
Chapter shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the provisions of the
Employment of Children Act, 1938 (26 of 1938)
2[CHAPTER VIII
ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES
78. Application of Chapter.- (1) The provisions of this Chapter shall not
operate to the prejudice to any right to which a worker may be entitled under any
other law or under the terms of any award 3[agreement (including settlement)] or
contract of service:
4[Provided that if such award agreement (including settlement) or contract of
service provides for a longer annual leave with wages than provided in this
Chapter, the quantum of leave, which the worker shall be entitled to, shall be in

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Chapter VIII (secs.78 to 84) subs. by Act 25 of 1954
3 Subs. for “agreement” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Proviso subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
44 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 79
accordance with such award, agreement or contract of service, but in relation to
matters not provided for in such award, agreement or contract of service or
matters which are provided for less favourably therein, the provisions of sections
79 to 82 so far as may be, shall apply.]
(2) The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to workers 1[in any factory]
of any railway administered by the Government, who are governed by leave rules
approved by the Central Government.
79. Annual leave with wages.- (1) Every worker who has worked for a
period of 240 days or more in a factory during a calendar year shall be allowed
during the subsequent calendar year leave with wages for a number of days
calculated at the rate of-
(i) if an adult, one day for every twenty days of work performed by
him during the previous calendar year;
(ii) if a child, one day for every fifteen days of work performed by
him during the previous calendar year.
Explanation 1.-For the purpose of this sub-section-
(a) any days of lay-off, by agreement or contract or as permissible
under the standing orders;
(b) in the case of a female worker, maternity leave for any number of
days not exceeding twelve weeks; and
(c) the leave earned in the year prior to that in which the leave is
enjoyed;
shall be deemed to be days on which the worker has worked in a factory for the
purpose of computation of the period of 240 days or more, but he shall not earn
leave for these days.
Explanation 2.-The leave admissible under this sub-section shall be
exclusive of all holidays whether occurring during or at either end of the period of
leave.
(2) A worker whose service commences otherwise than on the first day of
January shall be entitled to leave with wages at the rate laid down in clause (i) or,
as the case may be, clause (ii) of sub-section (1) if he has worked for two-thirds of
the total number of days in the remainder of the calendar year.
2[(3) If a worker is discharged or dismissed from service or quits his
employment or is superannuated or dies while in service, during the course of
the calendar year, he or his heir or nominee, as the case may be, shall be entitled
to wages in lieu of the quantum of leave to which he was entitled immediately
before his discharge, dismissal, quitting of employment, superannuation or death
calculated at the rates specified in sub-section (1), even if he had not worked for
the entire period specified in sub- section (1) or sub-section (2) making him
eligible to avail of such leave, and such payment shall be made-
(i) where the worker is discharged or dismissed or quits
employment, before the expiry of the second working day from
the date of such discharge, dismissal or quitting; and
(ii) where the worker is superannuated or dies while in service,
before the expiry of two months from the date of such
superannuation or death.]

1 Subs. for “in any workshop” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Sub-sec.(3) subs. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
Sec. 79 The Factories Act, 1948 45
(4) In calculating leave under this section, fraction of leave of half a day or
more shall be treated as one full day’s leave, and fraction of less than half a day
shall be omitted.
(5) If a worker does not in any one calendar year take the whole of the leave
allowed to him under sub-section (1) (2), as the case may be, any leave not taken
by him shall be added to leave to be allowed to him in the succeeding calendar
year:
Provided that the total number of days of leave that may be carried forward
to a succeeding year shall not exceed thirty in the case of an adult or forty in the
case of child:
Provided further that a worker, who has applied for leave with wages but
has not been given such leave in accordance with any scheme laid down in subsections
(8) and (9) 1[or in contravention of sub-section (10)] shall be entitled to
carry forward the 2[leave refused] without any limit.
(6) A worker may at any time apply in writing to the manager of a factory not
less than fifteen days before the date on which he wishes his leave to begin, to
take all the leave or any portion thereof allowable to him during the calendar
year:
Provided that the application shall be made not less than thirty days before
the date on which the worker wishes his leave to begin, if he is employed in
public utility service as defined in clause (n) of section 2 of the Industrial
Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947):
Provided further that the number of times in which leave may be taken
during any year shall not exceed three.
(7) If a worker wants to avail himself of the leave with wages due to him to
cover a period of illness, he shall be granted such leave even if the application for
leave is not made within the time specified in sub-section (6); and in such a case
wages as administrative under section 81 shall be paid not later than fifteen
days, or in the case of a public utility service not later than thirty days from the
date of the application for leave.
(8) For the purpose of ensuring the continuity of work, the occupier or
manager of the factory, in agreement with the Works Committee of the factory
constituted under section 3 of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947) or a
similar Committee constituted under any other Act or if there is no such Works
Committee or a similar Committee in the factory in agreement with the
representatives of the workers therein chosen in the prescribed manner, may
lodge with Chief Inspector a scheme in writing whereby the grant of leave
allowable under this section may be regulated.
(9) A scheme lodged under sub-section (8) shall be displayed at some
conspicuous and convenient places in the factory and shall be in force for a
period of twelve months from the date on which it comes into force, and may
thereafter be renewed with or without modification for a further period of twelve
months at a time, by the manager in agreement with the Works Committee or a
similar Committee, or as the case may be, in agreement with the representatives
of the workers as specified in sub-section (8), and a notice of renewal shall be
sent to the Chief Inspector before it is renewed.

1 Subs. for “in sub-secs.(8) and (9) by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Subs. for “unavailed leave” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976).
46 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 80
(10) An application for leave which does not contravene the provisions of
sub-section (6) shall not be refused unless refusal is in accordance with the subscheme
for the time being in operation under sub-sections (8) and (9).
(11) If the employment of a worker is entitled to leave under section (1) or
sub-section (2) as the case may be, is terminated by the occupier before he has
taken the entire leave to which he is entitled, or if having his applied for and
having not been granted such leave, the worker quits his employment before he
has taken the leave, the occupier of the factory shall pay him the amount payable
under section 80 in respect of the leave not taken, and such payment shall be
made, where the employment of the worker is terminated by the occupier, before
the expiry of the second working day after such termination and where a worker
who quits the employment, on or before the next pay day.
(12) The unavailed leave of a worker shall not be taken into consideration in
computing the period of any notice required to be given before discharge or
dismissal.
80. Wages during leave period.- (1) For the leave allowed to him under
1[section 78 or section 79, as the case may be], a worker 2[shall be entitled to
wages] at a rate equal to the daily average of his total full time earnings for the
days on which 3[he actually worked] during the month immediately proceeding
his leave, exclusive of any overtime and bonus but inclusive of dearness
allowance and the cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through the
concessional sale to the worker of foodgrains and other articles:
4[Provided that in the case of a worker who has not worked on any day
during the calendar month immediately preceding his leave, he shall be paid at a
rate equal to the daily average of his total full time earnings for the days on
which he actually worked during the last calendar month proceeding his leave, in
which he actually worked, exclusive of any overtime and bonus but inclusive of
dearness allowance and the cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through
the concessional sale to the workers of foodgrains and other articles.]
(2) The cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through the concessional
sale to the worker of foodgrains and other articles shall be computed as often as
may be prescribed on the basis of the maximum quantity of foodgrains and other
articles admissible to a standard family.
Explanation 1.- `Standard family’ means a family consisting of worker, his or
her spouse and two children below the age of fourteen years requiring in all three
adult consumption units.
Explanation 2.-`Adult consumption unit’ means the consumption unit of a
male above the age of fourteen years and the consumption unit of a female above
the age of fourteen years and that of a child below the age of fourteen years shall
be calculated at the rates of 0.8 and 0.6 respectively of one adult, consumption
unit.
(3) The 5[State] Government may make rules prescribing-

1 Subs. for “section 79” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 20.10.1976)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987.)
3 Subs. for “he worked” by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
4 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987.)
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
Sec. 85 The Factories Act, 1948 47
(a) the manner in which the cash equivalent of the advantage
accruing through the concessional sale to a worker of foodgrains
and other articles shall be computed; and
(b) the registers that shall be maintained in a factory for the
purpose of securing compliance with the provisions of this
section.
81. Payment in advance in certain cases.- A worker who has been allowed
leave for not less than four days in the case of adult, and five days in the case of
a child shall before his leave begins, be paid the wages due for the period of the
leave allowed.
82. Mode of recovery of unpaid wages.- Any sum required to be paid by an
employer under this Chapter but not paid by him shall be recoverable as delayed
wages under the provisions of the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 (4 of 1936).
83. Power to make rules.- The 1[State] Government may make rules
directing managers of factories to keep registers containing such particulars as
may be prescribed and requiring the registers to be made available for
examination by Inspector.
84. Power to exempt factories.- Where the 2[State] Government is satisfied
that the leave rules applicable to workers in a factory provided benefits which in
its opinion are not less favourable than those for which this Chapter makes
provisions if may by written order exempt the factory from all or any of the
provisions of this Chapter subject to such conditions as may be specified in the
order.
3[Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, in deciding whether the
benefits which are provided for by any leave rules are less favourable than those
for which this Chapter makes provision, or not, the totality of the benefits shall
be taken into account.]
CHAPTER IX
SPECIAL PROVISIONS
85. Power to apply the Act to certain premises.- (1) The 4[State]
Government may by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that all or any of
the provisions of the Act shall apply to any place wherein a manufacturing
process is carried on with or without the aid of power or is so ordinarily carried
on notwithstanding that-
(i) the number of persons employed therein is less than ten, if
working with the aid of power and less than twenty if working
without the aid of power, or
(ii) the persons working therein are not employed by the owner
thereof but are working with the permission of, or under
agreement with, such owner:
Provided that the manufacturing process is not being carried on by the
owner only with the aid of his family.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
3 Explanation ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
48 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 86
(2) After a place is so declared it shall be deemed to be a factory for the
purpose of this Act, and the owner shall be deemed to be the occupier, and any
person working therein, a worker.
Explanation.-For the purposes of this section `owner’ shall include a lessee
or mortgagee with possession of the premises.
86. Power to exempt public institutions.- The 1[State] Government may
exempt, subject to such conditions as it may consider necessary, any workshop
or workplace where a manufacturing process is carried on and which is attached
to a public institution maintained for the purposes of education, 2[training
research] or reformation, from all or any of the provisions of this Act:
Provided that no exemption shall be granted from the provisions relating to
hours of work and holidays, unless the persons having the control of the
institution submit for the approval of the 3[State] Government a scheme for the
regulation of the hours of employment, intervals for meals and holidays of the
persons employed in or attending the institution or who are inmates of the
institution, and the 4[State] Government is satisfied that the provisions of the
scheme are not less favourable than the corresponding provisions of this Act.
87. Dangerous operations.- Where the 5[State] Government is of opinion
that any 6[manufacturing process or operation] carried on in a factory exposes
any persons employed in it to a serious risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease,
it may make rules applicable to any factory or class or description of factories in
which the 7[manufacturing process or operation] is carried on-
(a) specifying the 8[manufacturing process or operation] and
declaring it to be dangerous;
(b) prohibiting or restricting the employment of women, adolescents
or children in the 9[manufacturing process or operation;]
(c) providing for the periodical medical examination of persons
employed, or seeking to be employed, in the 10[manufacturing
process or operation] and prohibiting the employment of persons
not certified as fit for such employment 11[and requiring the
payment by the occupier of the factory of fees for such medical
examination;]
(d) providing for the protection of all persons employed in the
12[manufacturing process or operation] or in the vicinity of the
places where it is carried on;

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Subs. for “training” by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
6 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
7 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
8 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
9 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
10 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
11 Ins. by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
12 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
Sec. 88 The Factories Act, 1948 49
(e) prohibiting, restricting or controlling the use of any specified
materials or process in connection with the 1[manufacturing
process or operation;]
2[(f) requiring the provision of additional welfare amenities and
sanitary facilities and the supply of protective equipment and
clothing, and laying down the standards thereof, having regard
to the dangerous nature of the manufacturing process or
operation;]
(g) 3[***]
4[87A. Power to prohibit employment on account of serious hazard.-(1)
Where it appears to the Inspector that conditions in a factory or part thereof are
such that they may cause serious hazard by way of injury or death to the
persons employed therein or to the general public in the vicinity, he may, by
order in writing to the occupier of the factory, state the particulars in respect of
which he considers the factory or part thereof to be the cause of such serious
hazard and prohibit such occupier from employing any person in the factory or
any part thereof other than the minimum number of persons necessary to attend
to the minimum tasks till the hazard is removed.
(2) Any order issued by the Inspector under sub-section (1) shall have effect
for a period of three days until extended by the Chief Inspector by a subsequent
order.
(3) Any person aggrieved by an order of the Inspector under sub- section (1),
and Chief Inspector under sub-section (2) shall have the right to appeal to the
High Court.
(4) Any person whose employment has been affected by an order issued
under sub-section (1), shall be entitled to wages and other benefits and it shall be
the duty of the occupier to provide alternative employment to him wherever
possible and in the manner prescribed.
(5) The provisions of sub-section (4) shall be without prejudice to the rights
of the parties under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 (14 of 1947).]
88. Notice of certain accidents.-
5[(1)] Where in any factory an accident
occurs which causes death or which causes any bodily injury by reason of which
the person injured is prevented from working for a period of forty eight hours or
more immediately following the accident or which is of such nature as may be
prescribed in this behalf the manager of the factory shall send notice thereof to
such authorities and in such form and within such time as may be prescribed.
6[(2) Where a notice given under sub-section (1) relates to an accident
causing death, the authority to whom the notice is sent shall make an inquiry
into the occurrence within one month of the receipt of the notice, or if such
authority is not the Inspector cause the Inspector to make an inquiry within the
said period.

1 Subs. for “operation” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Cls.(f) ins. by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
3 Del. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 and sec.87-A ins. by the same Act.
5 Sec.88 re numbered as sub- sec.(1) by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976.)
6 Sub-secs.(2) and (3) ins. by Act 94 of 1976.
50 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 88A
(3) The 1[State] Government may make rules for regulating the procedure at
inquiries under this section.]
2[88A. Notice of certain dangerous occurrences.-Where in a factory any
dangerous occurrence of such nature as may be prescribed occurs, whether
causing any bodily injury or disability or not, the manager of the factory shall
sent notice thereof to such authorities, and in such form and within such time as
may be prescribed.]
89. Notice of certain diseases.-(1) Where any worker in a factory contacts
any disease specified in 3[the third schedule], the manager of the factory shall
send a notice thereof to such authorities, and in such form and within such time,
as may be prescribed.
(2) If any medical practitioner attends on a person who is or has been
employed in a factory and who is or is believed by the medical practitioner to be
suffering from any disease specified in 4[the third schedule], the medical
practitioner shall without delay send a report in writing to the office of the Chief
Inspector stating-
(a) the name and full postal address of the patient,
(b) the disease from which he believes the patient to be suffering,
and
(c) the name and address of the factory in which the patient is or
was last employed.
(3) Where the report under sub-section (2) is confirmed to the satisfaction of
the Chief Inspector, by the certificate of a certifying surgeon or otherwise, that
the person is suffering from a disease specified in 5[the third schedule], he shall
pay to the medical practitioner such fees as may be prescribed, and the fee so
paid shall be recoverable as an arrear of land revenue from the occupier of the
factory in which the person contracted the disease.
(4) If any medical practitioner fails to comply with the provisions of subsection
(2), he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 6[one thousand
rupees].
7[(5) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
add to or alter the Third Schedule and any such addition or alteration shall have
effect as if it had been made by this Act.]
90. Power to direct enquiry into cases of accident or disease.- (1) The
8[State] Government may, if it considers it expedient so to do, appoint a
competent person to inquire into the causes of any accident occurring in a
factory or into any case where a disease specified in the 9[third] Schedule has
been or is suspected to have been contracted in a factory, and may also appoint

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
2 Sec.88-A ins. by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
6 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
7 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
8 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950.
9 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Sec. 91A The Factories Act, 1948 51
one or more persons possessing legal or special knowledge to act an assessors in
such inquiry.
(2) The person appointed to hold an inquiry under this section shall have all
the powers of Civil Court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908), for
the purposes of enforcing the attendance of witnesses and compelling the
production of documents and material objects, and may also, so far as may be
necessary for the purposes of the inquiry, exercise any of the powers of an
Inspector under this Act, and every person required by the person making the
inquiry to furnish any information shall be deemed to be legally bound so to do
within the meaning of section 176 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).
(3) The person holding an inquiry under this section shall make a report to
the 1[State] Government stating the causes of the accident, or as the case may
be, disease, and any attendant circumstances, and adding any observations
which he or any of the assessors may think fit to make.
(4) The 2[State] Government may, if it thinks fit, cause to be published any
report made under this section or any extracts therefrom.
(5) The 3[State] Government may make rules for regulating the procedure at
inquiries under this section.
91. Power to take samples.- (1) An Inspector may at any time during the
normal working hours of a factory, after informing the occupier or manager of the
factory or other person for the time being purporting to be in charge of the
factory, taken in the manner hereinafter provided a sufficient sample of any
substance used or intended to be used in the factory, such use being–
(a) in the belief of the Inspector in contravention of any of the
provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder, or
(b) in the opinion of the Inspector likely to cause bodily injury to, or
injury to the health of workers in the factory.
(2) Where the Inspector takes a sample under sub-section (1), he shall, in
the presence of the person informed under that sub- section unless such person
wilfully absents himself, divide the sample into three portions and effectively seal
and suitably mark them, and shall permit such person to add his own seal and
mark thereto.
(3) The person informed as aforesaid shall, if the Inspector so requires,
provide the appliance for dividing, sealing and marking the sample taken under
this section.
(4) The Inspector shall-
(a) forthwith give one portion of the sample to the person informed
under sub-section (1);
(b) forthwith send the second portion to a Government Analyst for
analysis and report thereon;
(c) retain the third portion for production to the Court before which
proceedings, if any, are instituted in respect of the substance.
(5) Any document purporting to be a report under the hand of any
Government Analyst upon any substance submitted to him for analysis and
report under this section, may be used as evidence in any proceeding instituted
in respect of the substance.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
52 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 91A
1[91A. Safety and occupational health surveys.- (1) The Chief Inspector,
or the Director-General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes or the
Director-General or Health Services, to the Government of India, or such other
officer as may be authorised in this behalf by the State Government or the Chief
Inspector or the Director-General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes
or the Director-General of Health Services may, at any time during the normal
working hours of a factory or at any other time as is found by him to be
necessary, after giving notice in writing to the occupier or manager of the factory
or any other person who for the time being purports to be in charge of the
factory, undertake safety and occupational health surveys and such occupier or
manager or other person shall afford all facilities for such survey, including
facilities for the examination and testing of plant and machinery and collection of
samples and other data relevant to the survey.
(2) For the purpose of facilitating surveys under sub-section (1) every worker
shall, if so required by the person conducting the survey, present himself to
undergo such medical examination as may be considered necessary by such
person and furnish all information in his possession and relevant to the survey.
(3) Any time spent by a worker for undergoing medical examination or
furnishing information under sub-section (2), shall, for the purpose of calculating
wages and extra wages for overtime work, be deemed to be time during which
such workers worked in the factory.]
2[Explanation.- For the purpose of this section, the report if any, submitted
to the State Government by the person conducting the survey under sub-section
(1) shall be deemed to be a report submitted by an Inspector under this Act.]
CHAPTER X
PENALTIES AND PROCEDURE
92. General penalty for offences.- Save as otherwise expressly provided in
this Act and subject to the provisions of section 93, if in, or in respect of any
factory there is any contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any
rule made thereunder or of any order in writing given thereunder, the occupier
and manager of the factory shall each be guilty of an offence and punishable with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3[two years] or with fine which may
extend to 4[one lakh rupees] or with both and if the contravention is continued
after conviction, with a further fine which may extend to5 [one thousand rupees]
for each day on which the contravention is so continued:
6[Provided that where contravention of any of the provisions of Chapter IV or
any rule made thereunder or under section 87 has resulted in an accident
causing death or serious bodily injury, the fine shall not be less than 7[twentyfive
thousand rupees] in the case of an accident causing death, and 8[five
thousand rupees] in the case of an accident causing serious bodily injury.
Explanation.-In this section and in section 94 “serious bodily injury” means
an injury which involves, or in all probability will involve, the permanent loss of

1 Sec.91-A ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f 1.12.1987)
6 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
7 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
8 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Sec. 93 The Factories Act, 1948 53
the use of, or permanent injury to, any limb or the permanent loss, of, or, injury
to, sight or hearing, or the fracture of any bone, but shall not include the fracture
of bone or joint (not being fracture of more than one bone or joint) of any
phalanges of the hand or foot.]
1[93. Liability of owner of premises in certain circumstances.- (1) Where
in any premises separate buildings are leased to different occupiers for use as
separate factories, the owner of the premises shall be responsible for the
provision and maintenance of common facilities and services such as approach
roads, drainage, water supply, lighting and sanitation.
(2) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the State
Government power to issue orders to the owner of the premises in respect for the
carrying out the provisions of sub-section (1).
(3) Where in any premises, independent or self-contained, floors or flats are
leased to different occupiers for use as separate factories, the owner of the
premises shall be liable as if he were the occupier or manager of a factory, of any
contravention of the provisions of this Act in respect of-
(i) latrines, urinals and washing facilities in so far as the
maintenance of the common supply of water for these purposes
is concerned;
(ii) fencing of machinery and plant belonging to the owner and not
specifically entrusted to the custody or use of an occupier;
(iii) safe means of access to the floors of flats, and maintenance and
cleanliness of staircases and common passages;
(iv) precautions in case of fire;
(v) maintenance of hoists and lifts; and
(vi) maintenance of any other common facilities provided in the
premises.
(4) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the State
Government power to issue orders to the owner of the premises in respect of
carrying out the provisions of sub-section (3).
(5) The provisions of sub-section (3) relating to the liability of the owner shall
apply where in any premises independent rooms with common latrines, urinals
and washing facilities are leased to different occupiers for use as separate
factories:
Provided that the owner shall be responsible also for complying with the
requirements relating to the provisions and maintenance of latrines, urinals and
washing facilities.
(6) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the State
Government, the power to issue order to the owner of the premises referred to in
sub-section (5) in respect of the carrying out the provisions of section 46 or
section 48.
(7) Where in any premises portions or room or a shed are leased to different
occupiers for use as separate factories, the owner of the premises shall be liable
for any contravention of the provisions of-
(i) Chapter III, except sections 14 and 15;
(ii) Chapter IV, except sections 22, 23, 27, 34, 35 and 36:

1 Sec.93 subs. by Act 25 of 1954
54 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 94
Provided that in respect of the provisions of sections 21, 24 and 32 the
owner’s liability shall be only in so far as such provisions relate to things under
his control:
Provided further that the occupier shall be responsible for complying with
the provisions of Chapter IV in respect of plant and machinery belonging to or
supplied by him.
(iii) Section 42.
(8) The Chief Inspector shall have, subject to the control of the State
Government power to issue orders to the owner of the premises in respect of the
carrying out of the provisions of sub-section (7).
(9) In respect of sub-sections (5) and (7) while computing for the purposes of
any of the provisions of this Act the total number of workers employed, the whole
of the premises shall be deemed to be a single factory.]
94. Enhanced penalty after previous conviction.-
1[(1) If any person who
has been convicted of any offence punishable under section 92 is again guilty of
an offence involving a contravention of the same provisions he shall be
punishable on a subsequent conviction with imprisonment for a term which may
extend to 2[three years] or with fine 3[which shall not be less than 4[ten thousand
rupees] but which may extend to 5[two lakh rupees] or with both:
6[Provided that the court may, for any adequate and special reasons to be
mentioned in the judgment impose a fine of less than 7[ten thousand rupees:]
Provided further that where contravention of any of the provisions of
Chapter IV or any rule made thereunder or under section 87 has resulted in an
accident causing death or serious bodily injury, the fine shall not be less than
8[thirty-five thousand rupees] in the case of an accident causing death and 9[ten
thousand rupees] in the case of an accident causing serious bodily injury.]
10[(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), no cognizance shall be taken of
any conviction made more than two years before the commission of the offence
for which the person is subsequently being convicted.]
95. Penalty for obstructing Inspector.- Whoever wilfully obstructs an
Inspector in the exercise of any power conferred on him by or under this Act or
fails to produce on demand by an Inspector any registers or other documents in
his custody kept in pursuance of this Act or of any rules made thereunder or
conceals or prevents any worker in a factory from appearing before, or being
examined by an Inspector, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term

1 Sec.94 renumbered as sub-sec.(1) by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. for “which may extend to one thousand rupees” by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f.
1.12.1987).
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Subs. for “which may extend to one thousand rupees” by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f.
1.12.1987).
6 Proviso subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987).
7 Subs. for “which may extend to one thousand rupees” by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f.
1.12.1987).
8 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
9 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
10 Ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
Sec. 99 The Factories Act, 1948 55
which may extend to 1[six months] or with fine which may extend to 2[ten
thousand rupees] or with both.
96. Penalty for wrongfully disclosing results of analysis under section
91.- Whoever, except in so far as it may be necessary for the purposes of a
prosecution for any offence punishable under this Act, publishes or discloses to
any person the results of an analysis made under section 91, shall be punishable
with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 3[six months] or with fine
which may extend to 4[ten thousand rupees] or with both.
5[96A. Penalty for contravention of the provisions of Sections 41B, 41C
41C and 41H.- (1) Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any of the
provisions of sections 41B, 41C or 41H or the rules made thereunder, shall, in
respect of such failure or contravention, be punishable with imprisonment for a
term which may extend to seven years and with fine which may extend to two
lakh rupees, and in case the failure or contravention continues, with additional
fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such
failure or contravention continues after the conviction for the first such failure or
contravention.
(2) If the failure or contravention referred to in sub-section (1) continues
beyond a period of one year after the date of conviction, the offender shall be
punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years.]
97. Offences by workers.- (1) Subject to the provisions of section 111, if
any worker employed in a factory contravenes any provision of this Act or any
rules or orders made thereunder, imposing any duty or liability on workers he
shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 6[five hundred rupees].
(2) Where a worker is convicted of an offence punishable under sub-section
(1) the occupier or manager of the factory shall not be deemed to be guilty of an
offence in respect of that contravention, unless it is proved that he failed to take
all reasonable measures for its prevention.
98. Penalty for using false certificates of fitness.- Whoever knowingly
uses or attempts to use, as a certificate of fitness granted to himself under
section 70, a certificate granted to another person under that section, or who
having procured such a certificate, knowingly allows it to be used, or an attempt
to use it to be made, by another person, shall be punishable with imprisonment
for a term which may extend to 7[two months] or with fine which may extend to
8[one thousand rupees] or with both.
99. Penalty for permitting double employment of child.- If a child works
in a factory on any day on which he has already been working in another factory
the parent or guardian of the child or the person having custody of or control
over him or obtaining any direct benefit from his wages, shall be punishable with

1 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
6 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
7 Subs. for “one month” by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987, w.e.f. 1-12-1987.
8 Subs. for “fifty rupees”, by the Factories (Amendment) Act, 1987, w.e.f. 1-12-1987.
56 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 100
fine which may extend to 1[one thousand rupees], unless it appears to the Court
that the child so worked without the consent or connivance of such parent,
guardian or person.
100.
2[***]
101. Exemption of occupier or manager from liability in certain cases.-
Where the occupier or manager of a factory is charged with an offence punishable
under this Act, he shall be entitled, upon complaint duly made by him and on
giving to the prosecutor not less than three clear days’ notice in writing of his
intention so to do, to have any other person whom he charges as the actual
offender brought before the Court at the time appointed for hearing the charge;
and if, after the commission of the offence has been proved, the occupier or
manager of the factory, as the case may be, proves to the satisfaction of the
Court-
(a) that he has used due diligence to enforce the execution of this
Act, and
(b) that the said other person committed the offence in question
without his knowledge, consent or connivance,-
that other person shall be convicted of the offence and shall be liable to like
punishment as if he were the occupier or manager of the factory, and the
occupier or manager, as the case may be, shall be discharged from any liability
under this Act in respect of such offence:
Provided that in seeking to prove as aforesaid, the occupier or manager of
the factory, as the case may be, examined on oath and his evidence and that of
any witness whom he calls in his support shall be subject to cross-examination
on behalf of the person he charges as the actual offender and by the prosecutor:
Provided further that, if the person charged as the actual offender by the
occupier or manager cannot be brought before the Court at the time appointed
for hearing the charge, the Court shall adjourn the hearing from time to time for
a period not exceeding three months and if by the end of the said period the
person charged as the actual offender cannot still be brought before the Court,
the Court shall proceed to hear the charge against the occupier or manager and
shall, if the offence be proved, convict the occupier or manager.
102. Power of Court to make orders.- (1) Where the occupier or manager
of a factory is convicted of an offence punishable under this Act the Court may,
in addition to awarding any punishment, by order in writing require him within a
period specified in the order (which the Court may, if it thinks fit and on
application in such behalf, from time to time extend) to take such measures as
may be so specified for remedying the matters in respect of which the offence was
committed.
(2) Where an order is made under sub-section (1), the occupier or manager
of the factory, as the case may be, shall not be liable under this Act in respect of
the continuation of the offence during the period or extended period if any,
allowed by the Court, but if, on the expiry of such period or extended period as
the case may be, the order of the Court has not been fully complied with the
occupier or manager, as the case may be, shall be deemed to have committed a
further offence, and may be sentenced therefore by the Court to undergo

1 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Del. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Sec. 106 The Factories Act, 1948 57
imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or to pay a fine which
may extend to one hundred rupees for every day after such expiry on which the
order has not been complied with, or both to undergo such imprisonment and to
pay fine, as aforesaid.
103. Presumption as to employment.- If a person is found in a factory at
any time, except during intervals for meals or rest, when work is going on or the
machinery is in motion, he shall until the contrary is proved be deemed for the
purposes of this Act and the rules made thereunder to have been at that time
employed in the factory.
1[104. Onus as to age.- (1) When any act or omission would, if a person
were under a certain age, be an offence punishable under this Act, and such
person is in the opinion of the Court prima facie under such age, the burden
shall be on the accused to prove that such person is not under such age.
(2) A declaration in writing by a certifying surgeon relating to a worker that
he has personally examined him and believes him to be under the age stated in
such declaration shall, for the purposes of this Act and the rules thereunder, be
admissible as evidence of the age of that worker.
104A. Onus of proving limits of what is practicable, etc.- In any
proceeding for an offence for the contravention of any provision of this Act or
rules made thereunder consisting of a failure to comply with a duty or
requirement to do something, it shall be for the person who is alleged to have
failed to comply with such duty or requirement, to prove that it was not
reasonably practicable, or, as the case may be, all practicable measures were
taken to satisfy the duty or requirement.]
105. Cognizance of offences.- (1) No Court shall take cognizance of any
offence under this Act except on complaint by, or with the previous sanction in
writing of, an Inspector.
(2) No Court below that of a 2Presidency Magistrate or of a 3Magistrate or of
the first class try any offence punishable under this Act.
106. Limitation of prosecutions.- No Court shall take cognizance of any
offence punishable under this Act unless complaint thereof is made within three
months of the date on which the alleged commission of the offence came to the
knowledge of an Inspector:
Provided that where the offence consists of disobeying a written order made
by an Inspector, complaint thereof may be made within six months of the date on
which the offence is alleged to have been committed.
4[Explanation.-For the purposes of this section-
(a) in the case of a continuing offence, the period of limitation shall
be computed with reference to every point of time during which
the offence continues;

1 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Now a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class (Criminal
Procedure Code, 1973)
3 Now a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the first class (Criminal
Procedure Code, 1973)
4 Explanation ins. by Act 94 of 1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
58 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 106A
(b) where for the performance of any act time is granted or extend
on an application made by the occupier or manager of a factory
the period of limitation shall be computed from the date on
which the time so granted or extended expired.]
1[106A. Jurisdiction of a court for entertaining proceedings, etc. for
offence.- For the purposes of conferring jurisdiction on any court in relation to
an offence under this Act or the rules made thereunder in connection with the
operation of any plant, the place where the plant is for the time being situate
shall be deemed to be the place where such offence has been committed.]
CHAPTER XI
SUPPLEMENTAL
107. Appeals.- (1) The manager of a factory on whom an order in writing by
an Inspector has been served under the provisions of this Act or the occupier of
the factory may, within thirty days of the service of the order, appeal against it to
the prescribed authority, and such authority may, subject to rules made in this
behalf by the 2[State] Government, confirm, modify or reverse the order.
(2) Subject to rules made in this behalf by the 3[State] Government (which
may prescribe classes of appeals which shall not be heard with the aid of
assessors), the appellate authority may, or if so required in the petition of appeal
shall, hear the appeal with the aid of assessors, one of whom shall be appointed
by the appellate authority and the order by such body representing the industry
concerned as may be prescribed:
Provided that if no assessor is appointed by such body before the time fixed
for hearing the appeal, or if the assessor so appointed fails to attend hearing at
such time, the appellate authority may, unless satisfied that the failure to attend
is due to sufficient cause, proceed to hear the appeal without the aid of such
assessor or if it thinks fit, without the aid of any assessor.
(3) Subject to such rules as the 4[State] Government may make in this
behalf and subject to such conditions as to partial compliance or the adoption of
temporary measures as the appellate authority may in any case think fit to
impose, the appellate authority may, if it thinks fit suspend the order appealed
against pending the decision of the appeal.
108. Display of notices.- (1) In addition to the notices required to be
displayed in any factory by or under this Act, there shall be displayed in every
factory a notice containing such abstracts of this Act and of rules made
thereunder as may be prescribed and also the name and address of the Inspector
and the Certifying Surgeon.
(2) All notices required by or under this Act to be displayed in a factory shall
be in English and in language understood by the majority of the workers in the
factory, and shall be displayed at some conspicuous and convenient place at or
near the main entrance to the factory, and shall be maintained in a clean and
legible condition.
(3) The Chief Inspector may, by order in writing served on the manager of
any factory, require that there shall be displayed in the factory any other notice
or poster relating to the health, safety or welfare of the workers in the factory.

1 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
3 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
Sec. 115 The Factories Act, 1948 59
109. Service of notices.- The 1[State] Government may make rules
prescribing the manner of the service of orders under this Act on owners,
occupiers or managers of factories.
110. Returns.- The 2[State] Government may make rules requiring owners,
occupiers or managers of factories to submit such returns, occasional or
periodical, as may in its opinion be required for the purposes of this Act.
111. Obligations of workers.- (1) No worker in a factory-
(a) shall wilfully interfere with or misuse any appliance, convenience
or other thing provided in a factory for the purposes of securing
the health, safety or welfare of the workers therein;
(b) shall wilfully and without reasonable cause to do anything likely
to endanger himself or others; and
(c) shall wilfully neglect to make use of any appliance or other thing
provided in the factory for the purposes of securing the health or
safety of the workers therein.
(2) If any worker employed in a factory contravenes any of the provisions of
this section or of any rule or order made thereunder, he shall be punishable with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to three months, or with fine which
may extend to one hundred rupees, or with both.
3[111A. Right of workers, etc.- Every worker shall have the right to-
(i) obtain from the occupier, information relating to workers’ health
and safety at work,
(ii) get trained within the factory wherever possible or, to get himself
sponsored by the occupier for getting trained at a training centre
or institute, duly approved by the Chief Inspector, where training
is imparted for workers’ health and safety work,
(iii) represent to the Inspector directly or through his representative
in the matter of inadequate provision for protection of his health
or safety in the factory.]
112. General power to make rules.- The 4[State] Government may make
rules providing for any matter which, under any of the provisions of this Act, is to
be or may be prescribed or which may be considered expedient in order to give
effect to the purposes of this Act.
113. Powers of Centre to give directions.- The Central Government may
give directions to a 5[State] Government to the carrying into execution of the
provisions of this Act.
114. No charge for facilities and conveniences.- Subject to the provisions
of section 46 no fee or charge shall be realised from any worker in respect of any
arrangements of facilities to be provided, or any equipments or appliances to be
supplied by the occupier under the provisions of this Act.

1 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
2 The Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
3 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
5 Subs. for “Provincial” by the Adaptn. of Laws Orders, 1950
60 The Factories Act, 1948 Sec. 115
115. Publication of rules.-
1[(1) All rules made under this Act shall be
published in the Official Gazette, and shall be subject to the condition of
previous publication; and the date to be specified under clause (3) of section 23
of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), shall be not less than 2[forty five
days] from the date on which the draft of the proposed rules was published.
3[(2) Every rule made by the State Government under this Act shall be laid,
as soon as may be after it is made, before the State Legislature.]
116. Application of Act to Government factories.- Unless otherwise
provided this Act shall apply to factories belonging to the Central or any State
Government.
117. Protection to persons acting under this Act.- No suit, prosecution or
other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything which is in good
faith done or intended to be done under this Act.
118. Restriction on disclosures of information.- (1) No Inspector shall
while in service or after leaving the service, disclose otherwise than in connection
with the execution, or for the purpose of this Act, any information relating to any
manufacturing or commercial business or any working process which may come
to his knowledge in the course of his official duties.
(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to any disclosure of information
made with the previous consent in writing of the owner of such business or
process or the purposes of any legal proceeding (including arbitration) pursuant
to this Act or of any criminal proceeding which may be taken, whether pursuant
to this Act or otherwise, or for the purposes of any report of such proceedings as
aforesaid.
(3) If any Inspector contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1) shall be
punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months or
with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both.
4[118A. Restriction on disclosure of information.- (1) Every Inspector
shall treat as confidential the source of any complaint brought to his notice on
the breach of any provision of this Act.
(2) No inspector shall, while making an inspection under this Act, disclose to
the occupier, manager or his representative that the inspection is made in
pursuance of the receipt of a complaint:
Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any case in which
the person who has made the complaint has consented to disclose his name.]
5[119. Act to have effect notwithstanding anything contained in Act 37
37 of 1970.- The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding
anything inconsistent therewith contained in the Contract of Labour (Regulation
and Abolition) Act, 1970 6[or any other law for the time being in force.]

1 Renumbered by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
2 Subs. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
3 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
4 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
5 Original sec.119 was repealed by Act 35 of 1950. The present sec.119 ins. by Act 94 of
1976 (w.e.f. 26.10.1976)
6 Ins. by Act 20 of 1987 (w.e.f. 1.12.1987)
Schedule The Factories Act, 1948 61
120. Repeal and savings.- The enactments set out in the Table appended to
this section are hereby repealed:
Provided that anything done under the said enactments which could have
been done under this Act if it had then been in force shall be deemed to have
been done under this Act.
Schedule
1[THE FIRST SCHEDULE
[SEE SECTION 2 (CB)]
LIST OF INDUSTRIES INVOLVING HAZARDOUS PROCESSES
1. Ferrous Metallurgical Industries
– Integrated Iron and Steel
– Ferrow-alloys
– Special Steels
2. Non-ferrous metallurgical Industries
– Primary Metallurgical Industries, namely, zinc, lead, copper,
manganese and aluminium
3. Foundries (ferrous and non-ferrous)
– Castings and forgings including cleaning or smotherning/
roughening by sand and shot blasting
4. Coal (including coke) industries
– Coal , Lignite, Coke, etc.
– Fuel Gases (including Coal Gas, Producer Gas, Water Gas)
5. Power Generating Industries
6. Pulp and paper (including paper products) industries
7. Fertiliser Industries
– Nitrogenous
– Phosphatic
– Mixed
8. Cement Industries
-Portland Cement (including slag cement, puzzolona cement and their
products)
9. Petroleum Industries
– Oil Refining
– Lubricating Oils and Greases
10. Petro-chemical Industries
11. Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industries
– Narcotics, Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
12. Fermentation Industries (Distilleries and Breweries)
13. Rubber (Synthetic) Industries
14. Paints and Pigment Industries
15. Leather Tanning Industries
16. Electro-plating Industries
17. Chemical Industries
– Coke Oven by-products and Coaltar Distillation products
– Industrial Gases (nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene, argon, carbondioxide,
hydrogen, sulphurdioxide, nitrous oxide, halogenated
hydrocarbon, ozone, etc.)
– Industrial Carbon
– Alkalies and Acids
– Chromes and di-chromates

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